This page contains presentation slides and audio files from the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) webinars. The upcoming and past webinars cover many of BETO's activities and feature "Hot Topic" discussions relevant to the development of renewable fuels, power, and products from biomass resources. See also Conferences, Meetings and Workshops, and other Events.
NOTICE: These webinars, including all audio and images of participants and presentation materials, may be recorded, saved, edited, distributed, used internally, posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE’s) website, or otherwise made publicly available. If you continue to access this webinar and provide such audio or image content, you consent to such use by or on behalf of DOE and the Government for Government purposes and acknowledge that you will not inspect or approve, or be compensated for, such use.
January 20, 2022, 3 p.m–4 p.m. ET—Biomass Feedstock Supply Challenges and Solutions with Idaho National Laboratory
Biorefineries are emerging in the United States to help transform our waste and biomass feedstocks into renewable fuels and products. However, a lot has to go right throughout the feedstock supply chain so that these biofuels and bioproducts are cost-effective and of high-quality and -quantity compared to their petroleum-based counterparts.
Join the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office on January 20, 2021, at 3 p.m. ET for a webinar titled, Biomass Feedstock Supply Challenges and Solutions with Idaho National Laboratory. Drs. Lynn Wendt, Bioenergy Program Lead, and Luke Williams, research scientist, at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will discuss feedstock supply chain challenges and how INL’s research is generating solutions.
Topics discussed during this webinar include biorefinery solutions centered around:
- Feedstock supply and logistics
- Developing new preprocessing strategies coupled with modeling
- Engineering conversion-ready feedstocks
- Finding new co-products early in the supply chain.
Drs. Wendt and Williams will also discuss INL's Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) and how recent upgrades can provide solutions to some biomass feedstock challenges and enable scale-up of biorefineries.
November 4, 2021—Community Waste Management Technical Assistance Forum–Exploring Solutions to Convert Waste to Energy and Bioproducts
As communities work to reduce their emissions, many are exploring solutions to not only cut down on waste but to convert it to energy and other products.
In 2021, BETO and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance to 18 communities across the United States. Over the past several months, these partnerships explored a multitude of topics in conjunction with NREL experts, including resource assessment, economic trade-off analysis, technology evaluation, and many others.
BETO hosted a forum with a panel of community experts involved in the partnerships to share updates about the program and plans for further technical assistance in 2022. The BETO forum included a series of presentations from several partnering communities, followed by a Q&A session to hear about how various communities are looking to tackle their organic waste challenges and how NREL can aid in this planning.
October 26, 2021– How Can New Simulation and Modeling Tools Accelerate Fuel-Engine Co-Optimization?
Fuel blend performance can be evaluated much faster using simulations rather than actual engines. The Co-Optima team has developed robust and well-validated tools to accurately capture fuel-engine interactions, improve the efficacy of predictions, and reduce computation time and costs. These new tools include high-fidelity computational fluid dynamic simulations and lower-order models that leverage acceleration techniques based on high-performance computing and machine learning.
Presenter: Sibendu Som, Argonne National Laboratory
Learn more about the Co-Optima Capstone Webinar Series.
October 21, 2021—How DOE is Supporting Small Businesses to Strengthen Community Partnerships and Workforce Development
DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office, Office of Technology Transitions (OTT), and Office of Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) programs gave a webinar to learn how DOE is working to increase diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) through the SBIR/STTR programs. The webinar featured Eileen Chant, Outreach Manager, Office of SBIR/STTR Programs; Jasmine Bridges, Commercialization Executive, OTT; and Elizabeth Burrows, Technology Manager, BETO. Panelist discussions included:
- An overview of the SBIR/STTR Programs and how to get involved
- SBIR-wide efforts to increase DEI
- SBIR Enhancement Effort
- The recent DOE SBIR/STTR Programs, Phase I awards
- Award impact experienced by local community workforce development partnerships.
September 30, 2021—Co-Optima Capstone Webinars: Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines Past, Present, and Future. What did we learn and where do we go next?
New Co-Optima knowledge and tools point the way to cleaner, more efficient engines. This webinar looked at the initiative’s accomplishments in the broader context of what might come next for internal combustion engine research in a rapidly changing world, factoring in increased vehicle electrification and a pressing need to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation.
Presenters: Robert Wagner, ORNL and Daniel Gaspar, PNNL
September 16, 2021—How ABPDU Is Training the Next Generation of Bioprocess Engineers
BETO hosted a webinar on how Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is partnering with the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) to train the next generation of bioprocessing engineers to enable the U.S. bioeconomy. Biotech and bioprocessing play a key role in mitigating climate change, but these industries face a pressing need for experienced people who can bring bio-based, sustainable products to market.
A new college course taking place at LBNL’s Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts Process Development Unit (ABPDU) aims to meet this need by providing students with hands-on experience with industry-relevant bioprocessing equipment. Part of UC Berkeley’s Master of Bioprocess Engineering program, the course prepares students for careers in the biopharmaceutical, industrial biotech, or food tech industries.
August 26, 2021—Sustainable Aviation Fuel Strategy at the Bioenergy Technologies Office
BETO hosted this webinar featuring Dr. Valerie Sarisky-Reed, acting director of BETO and Zia Haq, senior analyst at BETO. Topics discussed during this webinar include:
- Types of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) feedstocks
- Benefits of SAF to farmers, the environment, and the aviation industry
- Job creation potential of SAF
- BETO research, development, and demonstration on SAF technologies.
Learn more about Sustainable Aviation Fuels at BETO.
August 26, 2021—Co-Optima Capstone Webinar: What unconventional engine-fuel combinations show the greatest promise for efficiency improvements beyond current LD/MD/HD technologies?
Multiple unconventional combustion concepts offer substantial improvements in engine thermal efficiency. This webinar examined how changes to the composition and properties of future fuels could enable approaches such as multimode operation of LD SI gasoline engines and advanced compression ignition operation of MD and HD engines.
Presenter: Magnus Sjŏberg, SNL
Learn more about the Co-Optima Capstone Webinar Series.
July 15, 2021—Idaho National Laboratory: Providing Access to High-Quality Education and Training by Increasing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in STEM
Speakers Michelle Bingham, Director of University Partnerships, and Jennifer Jackson, Program Manager K-12 STEM, of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided an overview of how INL is implementing a workforce development and educational strategy that provides students with real-life work experiences where they can apply academic and technical skills.
INL’s K-12 Education Program serves students in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and provides equitable access to STEM learning and work-based learning opportunities for populations historically underrepresented in STEM education and careers. These include rural and remote, economically disadvantaged, and racial, ethnic, and gender minority students in Idaho.
From interns to postdoctoral researchers, INL’s outreach team implements workforce planning and development strategies to enable successful careers for post-high school students. The goals are to foster a future energy workforce and educate INL’s existing workforce as the United States moves into a new era in the deployment of clean energy technologies.
June 24, 2021—Co-Optima Capstone Webinar: What environmental and economic benefits might be realized by co-optimizing fuels and engines for medium-duty and heavy-duty commercial vehicles?
Co-optimizing fuels and engines has the potential to enhance the economics and reduce the environmental impact of the medium-duty and heavy-duty transportation sectors. This webinar discussed Co-Optima’s characterization of the cost and environmental effects of performance-enhancing bioblendstocks, their potential benefits for fuel producers, integrated modeling exploring their potential for production at commercial scale, and associated societal benefits.
Presenter: Troy Hawkins, Argonne National Laboratory
May 27, 2021—FCIC Webinar: Characterization, Modeling, and Mitigation of Wear Issues for Conventional and State-of-the-art Biomass Comminution Systems
In this webinar, Drs. Jun Qu from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and George Fenske from Argonne National Laboratory discussed the FCIC Materials of Construction team’s analysis of wear issues in feedstock size reduction systems. The knowledge and tools developed in this study enable rapid mitigation selection for sustainable performance and product quality during biomass preprocessing. Learn more on the FCIC Webinars page.
May 27, 2021—Co-Optima Capstone Webinar: What environmental and economic benefits might be realized by co-optimizing fuels and spark-ignition engines for light-duty passenger vehicles?
Advances in engine design coupled with performance-enhancing biofuel blends could lower light-duty vehicle ownership costs while offering environmental benefits. This webinar discussed Co-Optima findings that characterize the cost and environmental effects of performance-enhancing bioblendstocks, their potential benefits for fuel producers, their potential for production at commercial scale, and associated societal benefits.
Presenter: Avantika Singh, NREL
May 20, 2021—What’s New with the Algae Technology Education Consortium
Ira Levine, professor at the University of Southern Maine and president and board chair of the Algae Foundation, provided a comprehensive overview of the Algae Technology Education Consortium (ATEC) and its impact on developing novel educational programs to strengthen algal industry workforce capabilities. Topics covered in this webinar included:
- ATEC program overview
- Establishment of K–12 STEM educational opportunities
- Training platforms for future algae famers, biotechnicians, and entrepreneurs
- Educational collaborations with national organizations
- Partnerships with federal agencies
- Future gamification of algae curriculum.
May 11, 2021—Biomass Analysis Technologies Directed Funding Opportunity
The Biomass Analysis Technologies (BAT) team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develops analytical methods for characterizing the composition of biomass feedstocks and intermediate products related to the production of biofuels, bioproducts, or biopower. These methods can support BETO in advancing bioenergy solutions geared towards lowering CO2 emissions in critical sectors of the economy. With funding from BETO, the BAT team is overseeing a Directed Funding Opportunity (DFO) to collaborate with NREL on three specific areas of interest: analytical methods for mixed carbohydrate steams; rapid analysis methods and sensors for mixed carbohydrate and lignocellulosic streams; and analytical methods for characterization of wet organic wastes.
The BAT team hosted a webinar to discuss the analytical expertise and capabilities that are available, and to answer questions about the DFO program. Learn more about the DFO and webinar here.
May 4, 2021—Sustainable Aviation Fuel and U.S. Airport Infrastructure
Worldwide, aviation accounts for 2% of all human-made CO2 emissions and 12% of all transportation CO2 emissions. Airports and airlines are considering alternative fuel options to meet environmental and sustainability goals and mandates. This webinar discussed sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) basics, production pathways, and current availability; ASTM International requirements for SAF and fuel blending impacts; and options for delivering SAF to airports.
- Alicia Lindauer, Bioenergy Technologies Office
- Zia Haq, Bioenergy Technologies Office
- Kristi Moriarty, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Derek Vardon, National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
April 29, 2021—Co-Optima Capstone Webinar: How can fuels and combustion reduce pollutants from future diesel engines?
Mixing-controlled compression-ignition engines—such as diesel engines—have many desirable attributes, including high fuel-conversion efficiencies. Nevertheless, these engines produce emissions of soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that must be mitigated by emissions control technology. This webinar discussed identification of bioblendstocks with low-net-carbon emissions and desirable fuel properties and approaches for curtailing soot, NOx, and net-carbon emissions by combining these sustainable fuels with a new combustion technology called ducted fuel injection.
Presenters: Bob McCormick, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Charles Mueller, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)
Learn more about the Co-Optima Capstone Webinar Series.
April 29, 2021—FCIC Webinar: Unveiling Signatures of Feedstock Variability
In this webinar, two Feedstock-Conversion Interface Consortium (FCIC) researchers discussed insights gleaned through multiscale characterization on sources of variability, compositional, and structural attributes that impact the biomass value chain. Learn more on the FCIC webinars page.
April 21, 2021—Earth Week Webinar – Bioenergy: Growing America’s Energy Future
During Earth Week BETO leadership detailed BETO's mission and methods that enable the U.S. bioeconomy. The panel of speakers included BETO’s:
- Dr. Valerie Sarisky-Reed, Acting Director
- Dr. Jay Fitzgerald, Chief Scientist
- Dr. Reyhaneh Shenassa, Chief Engineer.
The panel discussed high priority BETO topics including:
- BETO program overview
- Plastics recycling initiatives
- Waste-to-energy efforts
- Engaging farmers as clean energy partners
- Carbon dioxide utilization
- Advancements in marine and aviation biofuels.
April 16, 2021—Scale-Up of Biotechnologies
BETO hosted a webinar that focused on BETO’s planned biotechnologies scale-up strategy and was interest to those who applied to Topic Area 1 of the FY21 BETO Scale-up and Conversion funding opportunity.
Topic Area 1: Scale-Up of Biotechnologies
- 1a: Scale-up: Pre-Pilot for Biofuels and Bioproducts
- 1b: Scale-up: Pilot for Biofuels and Bioproducts
- 1c: Scale-up: Demonstration for Biofuels and Bioproducts
March 25, 2021—Co-Optima Capstone Webinar: How can co-optimized fuels and spark-ignition (SI) engines enhance efficiency while reducing carbon emissions of light-duty (LD) passenger vehicles?
SI engines using gasoline are projected to remain a significant percentage of the LD vehicle fleet for decades. The Co-Optima initiative has demonstrated that it is possible to improve the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of SI engines with higher amounts of biofuel blend components chosen to improve key fuel properties. This webinar described Co-Optima’s approach to the development of selection criteria and identification of these blendstocks, as well as analysis of their potential impacts on the sustainability of LD SI fuels and engines.
Presenters: Daniel Gaspar, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Jim Szybist, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Learn more about the Co-Optima Capstone Webinar Series.
March 18, 2021—Waste-to-Energy Technical Assistance Program
BETO and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory launched an organic Waste-to-Energy Technical Assistance Program for local governments. Organic waste streams, such as food waste and wastewater sludge, represent significant environmental, economic, and social sustainability challenges for municipalities. BETO has funded analyses assessing these waste streams and various aspects of their management, such as existing uses and costs of disposal. Given that these waste streams require local solutions, this technical assistance program provides municipalities with the most relevant data for their decision-making. BETO will fund up to 40 hours of subject matter assistance to municipalities topics.
Learn more about the program and view the Technical Assistance Informational webinar.
February 11, 2021—FCIC Webinar: Developing Modeling Tools for the Emerging Biorefinery Industry
In this webinar, two FCIC researchers discussed computational modeling approaches to predict the behavior of biomass feedstocks.
Dr. Yidong Xia from Idaho National Laboratory provided an overview of the work within the FCIC to develop first-principles-based design tools derived from validated computational models describing the transport of granular biomass feedstocks in hoppers and chutes, and the comminution of biomass feedstocks in milling equipment. Dr. Peter Ciesielski from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discussed a novel multiscale computational modeling approach using molecular and coarse-grained dynamics to predict macroscale physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of biomass from molecular scale structure and composition and tissue-scale anatomy. Learn more on the FCIC Webinars webpage.
December 9, 2020—FCIC Webinar: Developing First-Principles Tools and Knowledge for the Emerging Biorefinery Industry
BETO's Feedstock-Conversion Interface Consortium (FCIC) kicked off a new webinar series. The FCIC is a collaborative, interdisciplinary effort among nine DOE National Laboratories. The goal of the FCIC is to develop science-based knowledge and tools to understand and mitigate the effects of biomass feedstock and process variability on biorefineries. The first webinar, “Developing First-Principles Tools and Knowledge for the Emerging Biorefinery Industry,” provided an introduction to the FCIC by National Renewable Energy Laboratory Principal Investigator Dr. Ed Wolfrum. Dr. Wolfrum will present a high-level overview of each of the FCIC’s research areas, including materials of construction, feedstock variability, and process performance. The webinar end ended with a Q&A session; comments and questions are welcome. Learn more on the FCIC Webinars webpage.
December 7, 2020—Broadening Participation in the Bioeconomy
BETO has a mission to help transform the Nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost-competitive, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. In FY 2021, BETO is focusing on broadening participation-related topics for its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) funding opportunity. The topic titles were “Small Business Bioenergy Technologies Increasing Community Partnerships” and “Cultivating a More Competitive Bioeconomy through Strengthening Small Business Workforces.” The webinar included a Q&A session.
Women across various offices at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lead the agency in addressing America’s energy challenges. To highlight past, current, and future examples a webinar featured DOE leaders from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Valerie Reed, deputy director of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, Valri Lightner, deputy director of the Advanced Manufacturing Office, and Alison Hewett, a senior research analyst in the Water Power Technologies Office. These women have a combined 60 years of experience, representing a positive force that is changing the framework of research, development, and adoption of energy-related technologies and practices to drive U.S. economic competitiveness and energy productivity. They focus on improving energy performance, lowering costs, and accelerating market entry for new technologies through collaborations with industry, academia, and government. During the webinar, these accomplished women discussed:
- Career paths and career decision-making processes
- How the professional landscape has changed for women
- Individual DOE office priorities and successes in collaborating on joint initiatives, including the Plastics Innovation Challenge
- How their work is making a difference for the United States and future generations.
February 19, 2020—ChemCatBio Webinar: Addressing Unique Catalyst Deactivation Challenges for Converting Biomass-Derived Feedstocks
The Chemical Catalysis for Bioenergy Consortium (ChemCatBio) and BETO hosted a webinar titled, “Addressing Unique Catalyst Deactivation Challenges for Converting Biomass-Derived Feedstocks.” In this presentation, investigator Huamin Wang from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory presented an overview of the unique properties of biomass-derived intermediates that could cause catalyst deactivation issues and possible mitigation approaches. Examples of previous and current ChemCatBio research and development efforts showed how these issues are addressed was discussed.
March 28, 2019—Women’s History Month / Women in Bioenergy Research
To celebrate Women’s History Month, BETO hosted a webinar on women who are successful in the field of bioenergy research entitled, “Women’s History Month / Women in Bioenergy Research.” In this webinar, three prominent U.S. researchers were featured who are addressing research challenges to make bioenergy a more significant part of our nation's energy portfolio. View the recorded webinar.
March 14, 2019—Women’s History Month / Women in Algae
To celebrate Women’s History Month, BETO hosted a webinar on women who are successful in the field of bioenergy research, specifically algae, entitled, “Women’s History Month / Women in Algae.” In this webinar, participants learned more about algae research and career opportunities from some of the nation’s leading bioenergy women-in-science. View the recorded webinar.
February 5, 2019–IEA Bioenergy Webinar: Perception and Positions of Stakeholders Towards Bioenergy
The International Energy Agency Bioenergy Technology Collaboration Program (IEA Bioenergy TCP) hosted the international webinar entitled, “Perception and Positions of Stakeholders Towards Bioenergy” presented by Thuy Mai-Moulin and Uwe Fritsche, and moderated by Prof. Dr. Martin Junginger. In this webinar, international stakeholders’ viewpoints and positions towards bioenergy were presented along with an opportunity to discuss the results of several regional case studies. Recommendations on how to engage more successfully with a broad range of stakeholders so that policies and sustainability governance are perceived as legitimate and information to help build social capital, trust, and support among all stakeholders was provided. Lastly, presenters outlined how this work will be continued in IEA Bioenergy in the coming years.
December 6, 2018—Biomass Production and Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin
In the “Biomass Production and Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin” webinar, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory jointly presented modeling and analyses of potential implications of biomass production on nutrients and sediments in each of the six tributaries of the Mississippi River Basin. Presenters described the methodology, system boundary, and data sources and presented water quality estimates for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediments under historical land use in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Missouri River Basin, Ohio River Basin, Arkansas White and Red River Basin, Tennessee River Basin, and Lower Mississippi River Basin. The webinar also provided an estimate of potential changes in water quality and quantity under future biomass production scenarios and discussed opportunities for integrating conservation practices with biomass production.
September 26, 2018—CatCost: An Estimation Tool to Aid Commercialization and R&D Decisions for Catalytic Materials
Catalyst costs can significantly drive up the costs of biomass conversion processes; reducing uncertainty in catalyst cost can inform researchers as they identify new biofuel pathways that may be commercially viable. CatCost, a catalyst cost estimation tool by the Chemical Catalysis for Bioenergy consortium (ChemCatBio), has been developed to more accurately estimate costs early in the catalyst development process prior to commercialization. CatCost incorporates industry standard estimation methods into a user-friendly spreadsheet and web tool to be distributed online free-of-charge. This webinar detailed the methods used by CatCost, demonstrated how it was validated using commercially available materials (e.g., FCC, hydrotreating catalysts), and provided pre-commercial estimate examples (e.g., colloidally synthesized nanoparticles).
September 17, 2018—Freshwater Availability for Bioenergy Production in the United States – Assessment and Issues
In the “Freshwater Availability for Bioenergy Production in the United States – Assessment and Issues” webinar, Argonne National Laboratory presented an assessment of freshwater resource availability for U.S. production of bioenergy, as well as discussed the potential implications for non-bioenergy sectors. Presenters described the methodology, system boundary, and data sources; presented freshwater resources (rain water, renewable surface, and ground water) used for terrestrial feedstock at the county level in the United States; provided an estimate of freshwater resource demand under future bioenergy production scenarios; and discussed the role of effective rain and soil moisture in water analysis.
June 27, 2018—ChemCatBio Webinar: Accelerating the Catalyst Development Cycle
The Chemical Catalysis for Bioenergy Consortium (ChemCatBio) held a webinar called “Accelerating the Catalyst Development Cycle.” The realization of sustainable routes to fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks such as biomass relies on the effective transformation of highly functionalized compounds into targeted precursors and products using low-cost, earth-abundant catalysts that maintain performance under severe conditions. Addressing these challenges requires advanced catalysts with controlled active sites that promote desired transformations, while resisting deactivation, and that can be produced cost-effectively at relevant scales. This webinar highlighted transition metal carbides as a class of materials that has the potential to meet these goals. It demonstrated how the integration of predictive computational modeling, tailored materials synthesis, and in-situ characterization capabilities within the ChemCatBio Consortium is accelerating the development of these complex but promising catalysts.
May 8, 2018—IEA Bioenergy Webinar: Biofuels for the Marine Sector: New Opportunities and New Challenges
The International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Technology Collaboration Programme international webinar, “Biofuels for the Marine Sector: New Opportunities and New Challenges,” gave an overview of the maritime transportation sector, including its fuel and engine types, the fuel supply infrastructure, and the regulations on fuel specifications and CO2 emissions. The feasibility of current biofuels including their properties and supply was discussed and opportunities for new types of biofuel were presented.
April 19, 2018—Bioproducts, Grown and Made in America
The webinar, Bioproducts, Grown and Made in America, focused on bioproducts that are made in America from renewable resources like plants, algae, and wastes. Participants learned how scientific research and innovation is advancing use of sustainable materials in everyday products and emerging frontiers like 3D printing. Speakers from BETO, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories discussed how science and agriculture are setting the stage to enhance the American tradition of ingenuity and productivity.
March 7, 2018—ChemCatBio Webinar: Linking Catalyst and Process Development with Techno-Economic Analysis in the Conversion of Biomass to High-Octane Gasoline
Recent ChemCatBio research has focused on catalyst and process development to produce C4–C7 hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether over a copper-modified beta zeolite (Cu/BEA) catalyst. In the Chemical Catalysis for Bioenergy Consortium’s (ChemCatBio’s) webinar: “Linking Catalyst and Process Development with Techno-Economic Analysis in the Conversion of Biomass to High-Octane Gasoline,” Dr. Dan Ruddy demonstrated how techno-economic analysis of the process can be used to direct catalyst development research to target specific performance advancements, and similarly, how performance improvements exhibited by the Cu/BEA catalyst affect the resulting economic viability of the process. ChemCatBio is a national laboratory–led research and development consortium, funded by BETO, which is dedicated to identifying and overcoming catalysis challenges for biomass conversion processes.
January 28, 2018—IEA Webinar: Methane Emissions from Biogas Plants
The international webinar—Methane Emissions from Biogas Plants—was presented by Dr. Jan Liebetrau. It is part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy webinar series. IEA is an organization that studies energy issues related to reliability, affordability, and sustainability. During the webinar, participants learned about IEA Task 37’s new report on methane emissions from biogas plants.
December 6, 2017—ChemCatBio Webinar: Overview of the Chemical Catalysis for Bioenergy Consortium
This webinar marked the launch of the new Chemical Catalysis for Bioenergy Consortium (ChemCatBio) webinar series. The webinars in this series will focus on informing stakeholders about exciting research and development in identifying and overcoming catalysis challenges for biomass conversion processes. The first webinar in the series—Overview of the Chemical Catalysis for Bioenergy Consortium: Enabling Production of Biofuels and Bioproducts through Catalysis—provided an overview of the consortium, highlighted recent advancements in the production of biofuels and bioproducts enabled by ChemCatBio, and discussed opportunities for engaging with the consortium.
November 15, 2017—OPERATION BioenergizeME: “Invite a Bioenergy Expert” Webinar Series
BETO's “Invite a Bioenergy Expert” webinar series provided an opportunity for students to learn more about using biomass—plant, algae, and organic waste material—to produce renewable fuels and everyday products like cosmetics, plastic bottles, cleaners, clothing, and much more. BETO Technology Manager Devinn Lambert also shared details about her current projects and helped students understand how they can make the leap from the classroom to an exciting, rewarding STEM-based career.
November 1, 2017—OPERATION BioenergizeME: “Invite a Bioenergy Expert” Webinar Series
BETO's “Invite a Bioenergy Expert” webinar series provided an opportunity for students to learn more about using biomass—plant, algae, and organic waste material—to produce renewable fuels and everyday products like cosmetics, plastic bottles, cleaners, clothing, and much more. BETO Technology Manager Dr. Nichole Fitzgerald also shared details about her current projects and helped students understand how they can make the leap from the classroom to an exciting, rewarding STEM-based career.
November 17, 2016—BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: An Overview of Bioenergy and the 2017 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge
Bring renewable energy science into the classroom and ENERGIZE your curriculum with BETO’s 2017 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. In this Challenge, 9th–12th grade high school teams will design an infographic that responds to one of five cross-curricular bioenergy topics and then share what they have learned via social media. To make this Challenge more accessible, BETO designed this webinar for interested educators and students to learn more about the Challenge. It includes an overview of bioenergy, including its creation and potential uses, while reviewing each of the five bioenergy topic prompts. This webinar is part of the BioenergizeME Office Hours webinar series developed by BETO.
View the recorded webinar.
October 18, 2016—Small Business Voucher Program Overview
As part of the Small Business Voucher Program, the Energy Department’s Bioenergy Technologies Office invites you to join a webinar on Tuesday, Oct. 18, from 3:00 p.m.–4:00 p.m. Eastern Time.
The “Bioenergy Technologies Office Small Business Voucher Program Overview” webinar will provide an in-depth overview of the Small Business Voucher Program process and requirements. It will include information on the methodology used to select candidates and access to expertise and tools at national laboratories, in addition to program requirements. View the recorded webinar.
September 14, 2016—Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines FOA—National Lab Project Overview
As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative, the Energy Department’s Bioenergy Technologies Office invites you to join a webinar on Wednesday, September 14, from 2:30 p.m.–4:30 p.m. Eastern Time.
The “Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima)—National Lab Project Overview” webinar will provide an in-depth overview of the Co-Optima National Lab Consortium Project. Speakers will discuss co-optimization efforts for nearer-term advanced spark-ignition engine and longer-term advanced compression-ignition engine technologies. This will include information on the methodology used to select fuel candidates, ongoing simulation and experimental research, and efforts to identify and address deployment opportunities and challenges. Our experts will be available to answer questions following the webinar. View the recorded webinar.
September 1, 2016—International Energy Agency Webinar: Cascading of Woody Biomass Definitions, Policies, and Effects on International Trade
As part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Internal Webinar Series, the Energy Department’s Bioenergy Technologies Office invites you to join a webinar on Thursday, September 1, 2016, at 10 a.m. Eastern Time.
The international webinar—“Cascading of woody biomass definitions, policies, and effects on international trade”—will be presented by Olle Olsson, Research Fellow at the Stockholm Environment Institute, and Lena Bruce, a business developer at Swedish forest company Sveaskog. IEA is an autonomous international organization that studies energy issues related to reliability, affordability, and sustainability. The webinar will discuss recent research published on the cascading of woody biomass, or the prioritization of woody biomass usage, and will help inform debate around its implementation and policies.
August 17, 2016—Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines FOA Informational Webinar
In an effort to accelerate the introduction of affordable, scalable, and sustainable high-performance fuels for use in high-efficiency, low-emission engines, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office and Vehicle Technologies Office announced up to $7 million in project funding in support of the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative. An informational webinar will be held Wednesday, August 17, 1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Standard application questions regarding EERE and FOA procedures will be discussed. A recording of the webinar will be posted on the EERE Exchange Website. View the recorded webinar.
July 21, 2016—A Summary of the Results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 1
Technology leads and researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted a webinar on Thursday, July 21, 2:30 p.m.–3:30 p.m. Eastern Time. The webinar featured an interactive overview of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report, which provides detailed data about national biomass resources and new analyses that incorporate the cost of biomass delivered to biorefineries. The webinar also showcased new visualization tools to access Billion-Ton data on the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework. View the recorded webinar.
- A Summary of the Results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Vol. 1
May 5, 2016—Building the Billion-Ton Bioeconomy
The Biomass Research and Development (R&D) Board Operations Committee held a bioeconomy listening session on Thursday, May 5, 2 p.m.–4 p.m. Eastern Time. During the listening session, titled “Building a Billion Ton Bioeconomy in the United States,” attendees were encouraged to provide their thoughts and comments and to ask questions about the potential to grow the national bioeconomy. Listening session hosts from the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy solicited input from participants on opportunities that may exist and challenges that need to be confronted to achieve a focused and successful bioeconomy vision for the United States. This listening session used ThinkTank collaborative technology to gather input from participants.
In preparation for the session, it was strongly encouraged that attendees reviewed the recently released Federal Activities Report on the Bioeconomy. The report is a product of an interagency collaboration under the Biomass R&D Board, which includes members from federal agencies such as the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Energy, Interior, Transportation, and Defense; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; the National Science Foundation; and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The report was prepared to emphasize the significant potential for a stronger and cleaner U.S. bioeconomy through the production and use of biofuels, renewable chemicals, biobased products, and biomass heat and power. The report also delves into the wide-ranging, federally funded activities that are currently helping to bolster the bioeconomy.
April 20, 2016—Field-to-Fleet: How Does Feedstock Type Affect Biofuels Conversion?
In honor of Earth Week, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) presented a live webinar about BETO's Field-to-Fleet project and its outcomes to date on Wednesday, April 20, 1–2 p.m. Eastern Time. Field-to-Fleet is part of BETO’s larger Thermochemical Feedstock Interface Project and is a joint Idaho National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project designed to determine how feedstock type affects various thermochemical biofuels conversion processes. The multi-year project has quantified the impacts that feedstock type has on hydrotreating of pyrolysis oil, and is now ready to apply the methodology to other thermochemical conversion pathways. Participants learned about Field-to-Fleet outcomes, impacts, and opportunities for partnership. Presenters included laboratory project leads and BETO's Conversion Team.
January 21, 2016—Excellence in Bioenergy Innovation—A Presentation of 2015 R&D 100 Award Winning Projects
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) presented a live webinar titled “Excellence in Bioenergy Innovation—A Presentation of 2015 R&D 100 Award Winning Projects” on Thursday, January 21, 2016 from 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. The webinar featured state-of-the-art research by Dr. Jianping Yu of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Douglass Elliott of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)—winners of 2015 R&D 100 Awards for breakthrough bioenergy advances. View the recorded webinar.
January 21, 2016—BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Must-Know Tips for the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge
Infographics are a useful visual tool for explaining complex information, numbers, or data quickly and effectively. However, you do not need to be an experienced graphic designer to make an eye-catching infographic. To assist student teams with the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge, this webinar highlights strategies for designing engaging infographics and will provide creative approaches that can bring attention to your infographic and motivate others to share it across their social media networks. The webinar also includes lessons learned from previous challenges and tips from last year’s winning team. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge engages 9th–12th-grade high school teams to research one of four cross-curricular bioenergy topics and design an infographic to share what they have learned. This webinar is part of the BioenergizeME Office Hours webinar series developed by the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office.
December 16, 2015—Demonstration of NREL's Bioenergy Atlas Tools
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted a free webinar on December 16 demonstrating how to use the BioEnergy Atlas tools. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office funded the BioEnergy Atlas tools, which include the BioFuels and BioPower Atlases. These tools are designed as first-pass visualization tools that allow users to view many bioenergy and related datasets in Google Maps. Users can query and download map data and view incentives and state energy data, as well as select an area on the map for estimated biofuels or biopower production potential. View the recorded webinar.
December 10, 2015—BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Integrating Bioenergy into the 9th–12th Grade Classroom
Biofuel is the only viable substitute for petroleum-based liquid transportation fuel in the near term. It is, therefore, increasingly relevant to enhance conceptual knowledge of biofuels and other types of bioenergy in today’s classroom environment. Bioenergy has applications across multiple science and engineering disciplines and also provides opportunities for real-world learning. The webinar is designed to support high school educators and administrators in planning activities for their classrooms that integrate bioenergy topics with the life sciences, physical sciences, earth and space sciences, and engineering and technology. In addition, the information will assist advisors who are interested in participating in the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. This webinar is part of the BioenergizeME Office Hours webinar series developed by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office. View the recorded webinar.
October 26, 2015—Bioproducts in the Federal Bioeconomy Portfolio
In order for the U.S. bioeconomy to expand, it will require increased consideration of the development of commercial bioproducts. Bioproducts can displace traditional products made from fossil fuels at competitive prices, lower greenhouse gas emissions, and enable the commercialization of biofuels. Bioproducts can also make everyday products, like plastic, that enhance our quality of life. There is currently abundant opportunity to produce renewable chemicals, while producing biofuels using sustainable biomass. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office Technology Manager Nichole Fitzgerald, U.S. Department of Agriculture BioPreferred Deputy Program Manager Kate Lewis, and the Ohio State University Bioproducts Innovation Center’s Director Dennis Hall discuss how the federal government is promoting sustainability through bioproducts research, commercialization, and market development. View the recorded webinar.
October 15, 2015—BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Guide to the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge is an engaging way for students to explore topics in bioenergy and share what they have learned with others across the nation. In this challenge, high school-aged teams (grades 9–12) will use technology to research, interpret, apply, and then design an infographic that responds to one of four cross-curricular bioenergy topics. To make the challenge easier and more effective, this webinar is designed to guide interested students, teachers, and other educators through the submission process and highlight the resources that are available on the BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge website. These resources will assist students with researching their selected topics, developing their infographics, and designing effective social media campaigns. This webinar is part of the BioenergizeME Office Hours webinar series developed by the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office. View the recorded webinar.
August 27, 2015—BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Biomass Basics
Many students haven’t thought much about biomass as an option for generating electricity, transportation fuels, and other products. The Biomass Basics Webinar provides general information about bioenergy, its creation, and its potential uses, and is designed to assist teams competing in the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. This challenge, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), is a competition for high school students to learn about bioenergy, create infographics to present what they have learned, and share their infographics on social media. This webinar is part of the BioenergizeME Office Hours webinar series developed by BETO in conjunction with the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. View the recorded webinar.
May 27, 2015—A Changing Market for Biofuels and Bioproducts
A strong bioeconomy made up of biomass-derived fuels has an important role to play in a world of quickly changing oil prices. The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), is supporting research and development to ensure that these biofuels and bioproducts are both available and affordable. In this webinar, Dr. Bryce Stokes (CNJV) and Laurence Eaton (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will discuss the results of the BETO-funded report the "U.S. Billion-Ton Update," and how this and other research efforts are helping to enhance a secure and sustainable annual supply of biomass for the U.S. bioeconomy.
April 22, 2015—Biofuels for the Environment and Communities
Biomass-derived fuels are a promising, domestically sourced replacement for fossil-based fuels that can provide benefits to the environment, the economy, and society. The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), is supporting research and development to ensure the long-term sustainability of biofuels. In this webinar, Drs. Virginia Dale (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Cristina Negri (Argonne National Laboratory) will discuss the results of their BETO-sponsored research on how to develop biofuels that positively impact the environmental, socioeconomic, and technoeconomic sustainability of biofuel development in the United States. View the recorded webinar.
October 22, 2014—Genetically Modified Algae: A Risk-Benefit Assessment
As the algae industry continues to invest in the research and development of genetic modification (GM) to optimize biofuels production, biocontainment systems and regulatory policies will play key roles in avoiding potential impacts on the environment. Biocontainment of outdoor algae is challenging due to their small size, ability to disperse over long distances, resistance to desiccation, and the high concentration of cells in pond cultures. GM policies developed for agricultural crops provide a framework for the development of regulation for GM algae. This webinar discusses these issues, as well as examples of algal GM traits engineered by Los Alamos National Laboratory to enhance photosynthesis and biomass productivity with respect to risk analysis. View the pre-recorded webinar.
June 11, 2014—Algal Biofuels Consortium Releases Groundbreaking Research Results
Dr. Jose Olivares of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) presented the results of algal biofuels research conducted by the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB). NAABB is the largest advanced biofuels consortium ever funded, consisting of 39 institutions from national laboratories, academia, and industry.
February 6, 2014—The Potential for Natural Gas to Enhance Biomass Technologies
The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted a webinar in conjunction with the Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, and Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy to provide an overview of Natural Gas-Biomass to Liquids technology, advantages of using natural gas, and key themes that were established at the September Natural Gas-Biomass to Liquids Workshop.
October 24, 2013—Using the New Bioenergy KDF for Data, Discovery, and Research
The Bioenergy Technologies Office launched a revamped version of the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF). The KDF provides researchers, industry, policy makers, and the public with access to a variety of datasets, publications, collaboration, and mapping tools that support bioenergy research, analysis and decision making. Users can now utilize the KDF to search for the latest bioenergy research found in the Bioenergy Library.
June 24, 2013—Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies
Dr. Blake Simmons of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) presented on the discovery, design, and optimization of an ionic liquid pretreatment technology that can efficiently process hardwoods, softwoods, agricultural residues, and other energy crops. The webinar featured the latest developments in the approach of using ionic liquids to convert biomass into sugar, as well as a highlight of further research on enzymes and microbes that are compatible with ionic liquid technologies.
April 15, 2013—Computational Studies on Lignocellulose Deconstruction
Dr. Gnana S. Gnanakaran from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) presented his team's molecular research on lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulose is a promising carbon-neutral source of energy that is sourced from non-edible feedstocks. The webinar featured LANL's novel application of mathematical modeling and computational analysis to gain a better understanding of cellular and molecular biology. This approach provides one of the most in-depth looks at how lignocellulosic biomass functions, reacts, and changes, which can advance future applied studies in conversion and processing methods.
December 12, 2012—Upgrading Renewable and Sustainable Carbohydrates For the Production of High Energy Density Fuels
Presenters from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) highlighted the development of hydrocarbon fuels as renewable alternatives to petrochemical feedstocks. With decreasing global production of crude oil, it is essential to our nation that renewable alternatives to petrochemical feedstocks for hydrocarbon fuels are developed. A constant, reliable supply of these fuels would help ensure that the nationwide transportation of food, medicine, and consumer goods remains uninterrupted, regardless of sociopolitical conflict. Lignocellulose is a promising carbon-neutral source of energy derived from wood, agricultural waste, and woody grasses. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C6), L-arabinose (C5), and D-xylose (C5) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical-derived transportation fuel. Researchers discussed investigations into a potentially transformational strategy aimed at obtaining high energy density hydrocarbon fuels from non-food-based carbohydrate sources.
December 5, 2012—Global Solutions for Global Challenges: International Collaborations to Advance Bioenergy Research
Presenters highlighted the progress of ongoing research collaborations among scientists supported by the Energy Department and researchers from China, Brazil, Canada, Finland, and other countries around the world. Scientists from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) discussed collaborations that hold the potential for innovations in feedstock logistics and biomass conversion technologies that will help accelerate the commercialization of advanced biofuels. The presenters provided the results of exchanging best practices and benchmarking current biofuels systems with metrics and trends in trade and commoditization. Finally, the webinar featured collaborative work supporting the International Organization for Standardization and other initiatives attempting to define metrics and indicators to foster robust international markets for sustainable biofuels.
August 15, 2012—Assessing Impacts of Bioenergy Production on Regional Water Resource Use and Availability
This session—intended for local, county, and state water managers; working farmers and biofuel leaders; students and professionals in the fuel and energy sectors; and policymakers—provided an overview of requirements for water resources, as well as a discussion of the environmental impacts attributable to wastewater from biofuels production. Dr. May Wu from Argonne National Laboratory presented case studies to highlight the unique aspects of the water footprint of biofuels, thereby demonstrating the complex nature of the energy-water relationship.
April 23, 2012—Educational Opportunities in Bioenergy
This focused on educational opportunities at two Department of Energy (DOE) national labs: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During the webinar, experts from NREL and ORNL showcased specific bioenergy research programs and exciting educational opportunities available for undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students at the labs. The webinar topics featured synopses of these bioenergy research programs, highlights of the benefits to students participating in them, and a list of important contacts to help students get involved. Webcast presenters included current and former student participants and leaders of the bioenergy research programs from both national labs, who provided information on the programs and their experiences.
February 9, 2012—Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Roadmapping Workshop Webinar
This focused on the results from the Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels (CTAB) Roadmapping Workshop, hosted by the Bioenergy Technologies Office in Arlington, Virginia, in December 2011. Critical technical barrier areas and research activities identified during the workshop were a central theme of the webinar and were presented by the subject matter experts who led the breakout sessions. The webinar also highlighted talks on broad technical issues (such as separation and catalysis) and innovative methods of biomass processing (such as hybrid conversion systems and lignin utilization). The information collected at the CTAB Workshop will form the basis of an upcoming roadmap document on research challenges and research and development activities for the commercial development of advanced biofuel technologies, slated for publication in late 2012.
- Bio-Oils Production Presentation
- Bio-Oils Upgrading presentation
- Carbohydrates Upgrading presentation
September 22, 2011—The U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry
This featured the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry, a report detailing biomass feedstock potential nationwide. Authors of the report presented the purpose, approach, and major assumptions of the 2011 Billion-Ton Update, including how it differs from the 2005 Billion-Ton Study. They discussed the report's findings, as well as how its data might be used by both the public and private sector to grow the bioenergy industry and help achieve President Obama's goals of expanding renewable energy resources and developing alternative fuels for America's transportation sector.
August 30, 2011—Transforming Biomass into Feedstock
This focused on how raw biomass can be processed into consistent and reliable feedstock material. Speakers from the Bioenergy Technologies Office, Office of Science, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), Idaho National Laboratory, and other institutions discussed technologies that produce and transform biomass into high-quality, on-spec, densified feedstocks. Speakers addressed the impacts these technologies have on supply chain logistics and feedstock performance for biofuels and biopower applications. Presentations covered both fundamental science related to cell wall formation and function, as well as applied research and development areas, such as engineering plants to produce enzymes that degrade cell walls when activated and increasing field density and productivity, while reducing fertilizer inputs.
View presentation materials and recordings on Idaho National Laboratory's website.
May 17, 2011—Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry - Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Opportunities
This featured an overview of sustainability issues related to the development of a global biofuels market. A panel of speakers from Conservation International discussed the results of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported Sustainable Biofuel Crops Project, including identified risks and opportunities for global biofuels production, results of field studies to develop responsible biofuel crop management strategies, and implications for land-use planning, policy, and developing markets.
February 8, 2011—Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework
This demonstrated the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF). The session included an overview of the system, case studies of how it may be used, and a demonstration of its user interface. View webinar recordings on the KDF website.
November 18, 2010—Advanced Biofuels Research Pathways
This featured an overview of the Office's ongoing advanced biofuels research, including research on biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. This session also discussed the progress the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is making in research, development, and demonstration of process technology strategies to convert biomass feedstock into a form that can be used in a petroleum refinery. These new and innovative approaches can advance the commercialization and adoption of advanced biofuels.
September 8, 2010—The Promise and Challenges of Algae as Renewable Sources of Biofuels
This focused on the Office's approach to algal biofuels research and development and included presentations from four representatives of its recently funded consortia. This session also discussed highlights from the National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap, which was released by DOE in June 2010.