This page contains links to technical reports and briefs published by the U.S. Department of Energy, plus information on current studies under way. These reports are intended to present objective technical analysis based on the most recent, referenceable data available at the time of preparation of the reports. As new information becomes available, DOE will make efforts to update these studies as necessary. While coordinated with other DOE data sources and policies, these reports also include data from a variety of non-governmental sources in order to produce, to the extent possible, unbiased analysis. These reports are intended solely for the benefit of the public, in order to help regulators, manufacturers, energy program managers, and others make informed choices and decisions related to solid-state lighting. Readers of these reports are urged to conduct their own due diligence and research before using the analysis presented in these reports.
Learn more about technical reports related to connected lighting systems investigations.
- Evaluation of the Reliability of Passive Infrared (PIR) Occupancy Sensors for Residential Indoor Lighting
A report that describes the optimization of a Robotic Sensor Evaluation System, characterizes and establishes test methods to assess the reliability of multiple PIR sensors, and reports the findings of robustness and reliability testing on two commercial PIR sensors intended for residential applications. (March 2022)
- Investigation of Ultraviolet (UV) Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Products
Two reports that investigate the performance of the same set of UV LED commercial products. The first report focuses on construction and initial performance and the second report focuses on long-term performance and reliability.
- Operating Lifetime Study of UV LED Products (April 2022)
- Initial Benchmarks of UV LEDs and Comparisons with White LEDs (November 2021)
- Investigation of the Long-Term Aging Characteristics of Chip-On-Board LEDs
Two reports that investigate the reliability of commercial chip-on-board LED products.
- Narrow-Band Red Emitters Used in SSL Devices
Two reports that investigate the performance, and benchmark the reliability, of a sampling of available SSL products that use narrow-band red emitters.
- Changes in SSL Device Efficiency and Optical Performance With Aging
Two reports that focus on the long-term changes in light source, optical delivery, and spectral efficiencies that occur as SSL devices age.
- A Review of Human Physiological Responses to Light: Implications for Development of Integrative Lighting Solutions
A study that summarizes the physiological effects of light on human health and well-being and endeavors to consolidate and synthesize key references, with the goal of supporting knowledge translation into pragmatic lighting strategies. (Journal article, March 2021)
- Initial Performance and Reliability of Chromaticity Sensors Used for Tunable Lighting Source Systems
A report that examines the initial performance and aging characteristics, under accelerating conditions, of a commercial illuminance and chromaticity sensor for use in sensor-driven lighting system controls—showing how changes in control sensors over time can impact the reliability of an SSL device. (September 2020)
- Stress Testing of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires
Three reports that provide stress testing results for OLED panels and luminaires. The third report builds on earlier DOE efforts with OLED technology by updating information about previously benchmarked commercial OLED products. Specifically, this report provides updated findings about the robustness and reliability of commercial OLED products, and presents information gained from more than a year of accelerated stress tests.
- Round 3 Update of Stress Testing Results for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires (March 2020)
- Round 2 Update of Stress Testing Results for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires (December 2018)
- Stress Testing of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires (January 2018)
- Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance Behavior of LED Packages Based on LM-80 Data
A report that assessed four major LED package platforms used in SSL applications for luminous flux and chromaticity maintenance by analyzing data sets from LM-80 testing of representative products from many Tier 1 LED manufacturers. (March 2020)
- Dim-to-Warm LED Lighting
Two reports on dim-to-warm LED lighting. The second report independently quantifies performance and reliability of dim-to-warm LED products, while the first report provides a methodology to characterize performance and assess potential reliability issues of dim-to-warm LED lamp products, as well as comparisons with an incandescent lamp benchmark.
- Dim-to-Warm LED Lighting: Stress Testing Results for Select Products (January 2020)
- Dim-to-Warm LED Lighting: Initial Benchmarks (July 2019)
- Accelerated Stress Testing of Multi-Source LED Products
A report series that uses accelerated stress testing (AST) to provide insights into the long-term behavior of commercial products utilizing different types of mid-power LEDs (MP-LEDs) integrated into the same LED module. The first report in the series provides initial AST results from two commercial lamps intended for use in horticulture applications and one tunable-white LED module intended for use in educational and office lighting applications. The second report focuses on determining the mechanisms of optical change in the same products.
- Accelerated Stress Testing of Multi-Source LED Products: Horticulture Lamps and Tunable-White Modules (54 pages, March 2018)
- Accelerated Stress Testing of Multi-Source LED Products: Round 2 (59 pages, July 2019)
- Accelerated Stress Testing Results on Single-Channel and Multichannel Drivers
A three-part series on driver robustness. The first report provides initial accelerated stress testing (AST) results for both single-channel and multichannel drivers, and the second report is an interim update on the performance of multichannel drivers in AST. The third report summarizes overall findings from up to 7,500 hours of AST on two-stage SSL drivers that could be used to operate troffers and similar fixtures.
- Part 1: Initial Results of Accelerated Stress Testing on Single-Channel and Multichannel Drivers (47 pages, February 2018 — Revised June 2018)
- Part 2: Accelerated Stress Testing on Multichannel Drivers — Updated Test Results (32 pages, May 2018)
- Part 3: Accelerated Stress Testing Results on Single-Channel and Multichannel Drivers: Final Report (44 pages, February 2019)
- Luminous Flux and Chromaticity Maintenance for Select High-Power Color Light-Emitting Diodes
A report that describes findings from a review of LM-80-15 data of color LEDs in high-power LED packages in order to provide insights regarding the current state of color LEDs. (29 pages, July 2018)
- LED Luminaire Reliability: Impact of Color Shift
Provides an understanding of chromaticity shift and its impact on the performance of LED lighting products. (27 pages, April 2017)
- Hammer Testing Findings for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires
Provides findings from the DOE LED Systems Reliability Consortium Hammer Test on commercial SSL luminaires, a highly accelerated life test method intended to produce failures in SSL luminaires in a reasonable test period, and provide insight into potential failure modes. (48 pages, December 2013)
- Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LEDs
This article, from the IES journal LEUKOS, discusses the complications related to lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) and LEDs, compares the performance of some conventional and LED products, and examines alternatives to the current recommended approach for determining LLDs for LED products. (December 2013)
- Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products
This three-part DOE study assesses the life-cycle environmental and resource costs in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of LED lighting products in relation to comparable traditional lighting technologies.
- Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, and LED Lamps (54 pages, February 2012—Updated August 2012)
- Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance (79 pages, June 2012)
- Part 3: LED Environmental Testing (211 pages, March 2013)
- Complete Report Summary
- Accounting for Uncertainty in Lumen Measurements
This study provides a detailed and step-by-step method for determining uncertainty in lumen measurements, working closely with related standards efforts and key industry experts. This report uses the structure proposed in the Guide to Uncertainty Measurements (GUM) for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurements. (35 pages, March 2011)