These studies examine how data might be used to improve the energy performance of lighting and other building systems, and how data quality affects its usability.
INDOOR OCCUPANCY SENSOR PERFORMANCE
PNNL conducted a literature review exploring test methods for characterizing the performance of new and novel indoor occupancy sensors that might facilitate significant energy savings in buildings while minimizing occupant dissatisfaction. A new test method that leverages the best ideas discovered via the literature review is under development in the CLTB. This work will inform a new study that compares and contrasts the performance of several commercially available occupancy sensor technologies with the status quo.
- A Review of Existing Test Methods for Occupancy Sensors (Report, August 2020)
ENERGY REPORTING ACCURACY
Emerging energy-efficient building systems (e.g., lighting, HVAC) increasingly have greater functionality, which often shows up in the form of more operating modes. This increased functionality, however, makes it more difficult to estimate energy consumption. A PNNL study explores the reporting accuracy of market-available connected electrical outlet devices, using a custom-developed test setup and method that were adapted from industry standards.
- Characterization and Analysis of the Energy-Reporting Accuracy of Connected Devices (Report, June 2020)
- Power Play: How Accurate is the Self-Reported Energy Consumption of Connected Devices? (Article, December 2020)
CALIBRATING MEASURING EQUIPMENT
An increasing number of lighting and other building systems are capable of reporting their own energy consumption. Evaluation of the accuracy of any such data typically involves comparing the reported data with measurements from a calibrated laboratory-grade instrument. A PNNL study describes best practices and provides a tailorable specification template for requesting calibration of energy measuring equipment. A follow-on study (in progress) addresses environmental measuring equipment.
- Specifying Calibration of Energy-Measuring Equipment (Report, March 2020)
- Straight from the Device (Article, September 2020)
- Specifying Calibration of Environmental Sensors (Report, September 2020)
0-10V CONTROL FOR STREETLIGHTS (IN PROGRESS)
While 0-10V control methods have long been popular for controlling the light output of dimmable devices, standardized implementations have never mandated consistent, predictable responses to a given control signal. The ANSI C137.1 standard was developed in part to reduce the response variation seen across products. A PNNL study characterizes the response to 0-10V controls signals of more than 20 different market-available LED outdoor cobrahead luminaires (typically used for streetlighting applications) that claimed dimmability via a 0-10V interface, and evaluates the potential impact of the ANSI standard.
- To Dim or Not to Dim: Why Is That Still a Difficult Question? (Article, May 2020)
- An Exploration of the Response of LED Streetlights to 0-10v Control Signals (in progress)
NETWORKED STREETLIGHT CONTROLLERS (IN PROGRESS)
This study compares and contrasts how much energy is consumed by the different types of devices used to control streetlights, including shorting caps, photocells, and multiple makes and models of networked controllers that deliver additional capabilities, such as remote monitoring and energy reporting.
POWER OVER ETHERNET CABLES
Completed studies explore the impact of various PoE cable characteristics (e.g., make/model, wire gauge, bundle size, conduit presence) on energy losses.
- Connected Lighting Systems Efficiency Study — PoE Cable Energy Losses, Part 2 (Report, September 2018)
- Connected Lighting Systems Efficiency Study — PoE Cable Energy Losses, Part 1 (Report, September 2017, revised January 2019)
- Test-Bed Studies Examine PoE (Article, October 2018)
POWER OVER ETHERNET SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES
A preliminary study looked at the ability of PoE systems to report their own energy consumption, and an in-development study will explore the impact of different system and technology choices on energy performance. Multiple cable types, switch types, and system architectures will be explored, and actual energy consumption will be compared to reported consumption.
- PoE Lighting System Energy Reporting Study, Part 1 (Report, February 2017)
- PoE Lighting System Energy Reporting Study, Part 2 (in progress)