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The U.S. Manufacturing Sector Static Sankey diagram shows how total primary energy is used by U.S. manufacturing plants. Click on the Onsite Generation, Process Energy or Nonprocess Energy thumbnails below the diagram to see further detail on energy flows in manufacturing. Also, see the Dynamic Manufacturing Energy Sankey Tool to pan, zoom, and customize the manufacturing Sankey data and compare energy consumption across manufacturing subsectors.
The U.S. Manufacturing diagram below shows the fuel, steam and electricity entering U.S. manufacturing plants from offsite sources. Renewable electricity generated onsite is also shown. A large portion of the primary energy is lost during the offsite generation and subsequent transmission of steam and electricity to the manufacturing facilities (e.g., electric grid losses). Further losses occur when a portion of the fuel is transformed into steam and electricity at the facilities, and there are additional losses associated with onsite steam distribution. The fuel, steam, and electricity from offsite and onsite sources are used either directly in production (process energy) or in supporting functions (non-process energy). Applied energy (applied toward direct production or end use at the plant) is determined by subtracting the offsite generation and transmission losses, onsite generation and distribution losses, and end use losses.
These diagrams visually complement the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint analysis. Definitions of terms used in this Sankey diagram are at the bottom of this page.
Data source: 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint
Applied Energy: Amount of total primary energy employed in direct end use.
Energy Losses: The sum of offsite electricity and steam generation and transmission losses, onsite generation and distribution losses, and direct end use losses.
Onsite Renewable Electricity Generation: Electricity generated onsite from renewable sources other than biomass (e.g., solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal).
Process Energy: Energy directly applied in converting raw material into manufactured product. MECS-specified categories of process energy include process heating, process cooling and refrigeration, machine drive, electrochemical processes, and other process uses.
Nonprocess Energy: Energy used for purposes other than converting raw material into manufactured product. MECS-specified categories of nonprocess energy include facility HVAC, facility lighting, onsite transportation, other facility support (e.g., cooking, water heating), and other nonprocess use.
- The data source for this Sankey Diagram is the 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint. The footprint analysis utilizes 2010 EIA Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data, with adjustments, to quantify steam generation, electricity generation, and incoming fuel; onsite steam and electricity generation; and end use of electricity and fuel. Steam end use is not provided by MECS but rather is dependent on analysis alone.
- Energy values represent aggregate sector-wide data in TBtu/yr, rounded to nearest whole number
- Excludes feedstock energy (byproduct fuels from feedstock are included)
- Arrow and box heights are proportional to flow size except for small flows for visual convenience
- Energy loss does not equate to recoverable energy, as a portion of these losses are thermodynamically unrecoverable
- Offsite generation shown on net basis (purchases, sales, and transfers accounted for)