The Advanced Materials & Manufacturing Technologies Office's (AMMTO) Critical Minerals and Materials portfolio addresses high-impact opportunities and challenges across the entire life cycle of high priority critical minerals and materials for energy technologies. The United States lacks a strong domestic supply of many minerals and materials which will be critical to a decarbonized energy infrastructure as well as current manufacturing technologies. These include:
- Rare earth elements, used in offshore wind turbine generators and electric vehicle motors;
- Lithium, cobalt, and high-purity nickel, used in energy storage technologies;
- Platinum group metals used in catalysts for automotive, chemical, fuel cell, and green hydrogen products; and
- Gallium and germanium used in semiconductors.
The DOE critical minerals & materials strategy is based on the following pillars:
- Diversifying supplies of critical minerals and materials;
- Developing alternatives to critical minerals and materials;
- Improving materials and manufacturing efficiency;
- Investing in circular-economy approaches; and
- Enabling activities such as criticality assessments.
Reports & Resources:
The Lithium Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Virtual Center, also known as the Lithium Center, is a United States Government-led center for promoting cooperation on lithium supply chain related topics across the United States.
This report evaluates the state of the United States critical materials rare earths supply chain and identifies the many challenges and opportunities the industry faces.
These reports examine the role of rare earth metals and other materials in the clean energy economy.
Key takeaways discussed included technology validation; resource diversification; and increased supply chain connectivity.