Clean energy manufacturing involves the minimization of the energy and environmental impacts of the production, use, and disposal of manufactured goods, which range from fundamental commodities such as metals and chemicals to sophisticated final-use products such as automobiles and wind turbine blades. The manufacturing sector, a subset of the industrial sector, consumes 24 quads of primary energy annually in the United States. Clean energy manufacturing will improve energy utilization and also yield economy-wide reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through changes in energy use enabled by the development of new materials and process technologies.

This chapter examines the opportunities for improvements in energy and materials utilization from three perspectives: individual manufacturing processes and unit operations; goods-producing facilities; and manufacturing supply chains, including energy impacts from all phases of the product life cycle for manufactured goods.