onsite energy diagram - 2018

Note: This page was published in December 2021 with the most recent Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, using 2018 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data and updated assumptions. Earlier versions of the footprints are still available: 2014 EIA MECS data footprints, 2010 EIA MECS data footprints, and 2006 EIA MECS data footprints. Detailed analysis of the footprints and sector rankings, utilizing 2006 data, is available in the U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis report. For more information, reach out to us.

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints map the flow of energy supply, demand, and losses as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in diverse U.S. manufacturing industries, based on EIA MECS and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions data.

The footprints show where energy is used and lost in manufacturing—and the associated combustion and process greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Each footprint visualizes the flow of energy (in the form of fuel, electricity, or steam) to major end uses in manufacturing, including boilers, combined heat and power generation, process heaters, process coolers, machine-driven equipment, facility HVAC. The GHG emissions associated with energy generation and end use are also mapped.


Footprints are available for 15 manufacturing sectors, that collectively represent 95% of U.S. manufacturing primary energy use, 5 manufacturing subsectors, and U.S. manufacturing as a whole in 2018. Each of the 21 footprints are accessible through the links below. To download all footprints, click here.


The footprints present data at three levels of detail. The first page provides a high-level view of primary energy for heat and power (offsite and onsite), while the second page shows details of how energy is distributed to onsite end uses. The third page depicts the GHG emissions from each point of energy generation, end use, and non-combustion sources (i.e., industrial process emissions). The analyses are based on manufacturing energy consumption data from EIA’s Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), along with referenced energy loss and emission factors, and input from industry and subject matter experts. Greenhouse gas emissions analysis combines data from MECS as well as EPA’s Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks.

Aggregate data provided in each of the sectors includes:

  • Electricity and steam generated offsite and transferred to the facility
  • Electricity and steam generated onsite
  • Fuel, electricity, and steam consumed by major end uses in a manufacturing facility
  • Offsite and onsite energy losses due to the generation, transmission and distribution, and end use consumption of energy (some losses are unrecoverable)
  • Greenhouse gas emissions emitted during fuel combustion and byproducts of various non-energy-related manufacturing processes


Footprints can help users better understand the distribution of energy use and compare use, loss, and GHG emissions within and across U.S. manufacturing sectors. Areas of significant energy consumption, energy losses, and/or GHG emissions could indicate improvement opportunities by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, or developing new technologies. The footprints provide a macro-scale benchmark for evaluating energy and GHG emissions and for prioritizing opportunity analysis.


The U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis report expands on the Energy and Carbon Footprints for 2006 to trace energy from supply (fuel, electricity, and steam) to major end-use applications in U.S. manufacturing. The report ranks the energy use, energy losses, and greenhouse gas (GHG) combustion emissions of 15 sectors.


energy and carbon footprint diagram

Understanding Energy and Carbon Footprints
Information to help understand the footprints

Scope of Footprints
Descriptions of manufacturing sectors by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code

Definitions and Assumptions
A glossary of footprint terms and a listing of footprint assumptions, including generation and end use equipment efficiencies, cogeneration efficiencies, process heating losses, steam distribution to end uses, and fuel combustion emission factors

Footprint analysis data sources



Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Sankey diagrams map the flow of energy supply, demand, losses, and emissions in the U.S. manufacturing sector, using data from the AMO Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints for 2018. The Sankey diagrams complement the footprints by graphically representing weighted energy and emission flows. The energy and emission pathways—from primary sources (fuel, steam, and electricity) to facility end use—is shown in a single image, including the energy applied to produce products, the combined energy losses, and associated emissions. The Sankey diagrams rely on energy data from the EIA Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey data for 2018 MECS and the EPA Inventory of Greenhouse Gases and Sinks. Earlier versions of the Sankeys are still available: 2014 Sankey diagrams and 2010 Sankey diagrams.

Manufacturing energy Sankey diagrams showing the flow of energy