Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints map the flow of energy supply, demand, and losses as well as greenhouse gas combustion emissions in diverse U.S. manufacturing industries, based on U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data for 2006. Footprints are available below for 15 manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for U.S. manufacturing as a whole in 2006. Detailed analysis of these footprints, and sector rankings, is available in the U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis report.

Note: The manufacturing energy and carbon footprints were updated in September 2018 (available here) using the most recent EIA MECS data for 2014 and updated assumptions. Footprints with EIA MECS data for 2010 are available here. For more information, email the webmaster


Each footprint visualizes the flow of energy (in the form of fuel, electricity or steam) to major end uses in manufacturing, including boilers, power generators, process heaters, process coolers, machine-driven equipment, facility HVAC, and lighting. The footprints present data at two levels of detail. The first page provides a high-level view of supply and end use, while the second page shows details of how energy is distributed to onsite end uses. The analysis is based on EIA's 2006 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data (the latest year for which complete MECS data is available) and input from industry and subject matter experts.

Footprints show aggregate data for each sector, including:

  • Electricity and steam generated offsite and transferred to the facility, as well as electricity and steam generated onsite
  • Fuel, electricity, and steam consumed by major end uses in a manufacturing facility
  • Offsite and onsite energy losses due to generation, transmission and distribution, and equipment and system inefficiencies (some losses are not recoverable)
  • Greenhouse gas emissions released during the combustion of fuel

Footprints can help users to better understand the distribution of energy use in each industry and to compare the use, loss, and carbon emissions within and across sectors. Areas of high energy consumption or significant energy losses can indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, or developing new technologies. The footprints provide a macro-scale benchmark from which to evaluate the benefits of improving energy efficiency and for prioritizing opportunity analysis.

Understanding Energy and Carbon Footprints
Learn how to read the footprints and understand energy use and carbon emissions in your industry sector.

Scope of Footprints
Details of the industry sectors included by NAICS code.

Definitions and Assumptions
A glossary of footprint terms and a listing of the footprint assumptions. Footprint assumptions include generation and end use equipment efficiencies, cogeneration efficiencies, process heating losses, steam distribution to end uses, and fuel combustion emission factors.

The publications used as data sources for the footprints.