MYPP - Multi-Year Program Plan

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office’s (GTO) Fiscal Year (FY) 2022-2026 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP), building on the findings of the GeoVision analysis, provides a high-level technology plan that focuses on key areas of GTO research to support the growth and long-term contribution of geothermal energy to the U.S. electricity grid and American homes and buildings.

Executive Summary

Geothermal energy—the “heat beneath our feet”—is a firm, flexible source of clean, secure, and reliable domestic energy that can be utilized across industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. Geothermal energy can help us achieve a carbon pollution-free power sector by 2035 and a net-zero emissions economy by 2050, while offering grid stability, greater diversity of affordable energy options, and efficient heating and cooling. Additionally, key geothermal technology and workforce pathways can assist the seamless transfer from oil and gas to renewables.

Video Url

Secretary Granholm and the former director of the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), Susan Hamm, dig into GTO’s Multi-Year Program Plan in their geyser-side chat

U.S. Department of Energy

The MYPP outlines GTO’s vision and mission, presenting a high-level technology structure for key areas of GTO research starting in FY 2022 and running through the end of FY 2026.

GTO considers the key findings of the GeoVision analysis to be clear evidence of geothermal energy’s role as critical to the nation’s aggressive, zero-carbon energy transformation. Thus, GTO has adopted the following strategic goals to reach geothermal energy’s full potential:

  • Strategic Goal 1: Drive toward a carbon-free electricity grid by supplying 60 gigawatts (GW) of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and hydrothermal resource deployment by 2050.
  • Strategic Goal 2: Decarbonize building heating and cooling loads by capturing the economic potential of 17,500 geothermal district heating installations and by installing geothermal heat pumps in 28 million households nationwide by 2050.
  • Strategic Goal 3: Deliver economic, environmental, and social justice advancements through increased geothermal technology deployment.

Read the full executive summary.

View GTO's prior MYPP here: Geothermal Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: 2009-2015 with Program Activities to 2025.

Explore the MYPP

Opportunities for Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Energy’s Role in Addressing the Climate Crisis
By 2050, deployment of carbon-free geothermal energy can help address the climate change crisis.
Learn more
The Geothermal Technologies Office’s Vision, Mission, Strategic Goals, and Research Areas
GTO’s vision is a vibrant domestic geothermal sector that contributes to a carbon pollution-free electric sector by 2035 and a net-zero emission economy by 2050 while providing economic opportunities and environmental benefits for all Americans.
Learn more
How the Geothermal Technologies Office Organizes Around Key Research and Deployment Focuses
GTO focuses on reducing geothermal development costs and risks by researching and advancing innovative technologies that address exploration and operational challenges
Learn more

Geothermal Technologies Office Technology Plan

Exploration and Characterization
The high costs and risks associated with geothermal exploration are a major barrier to expanded development of both conventional hydrothermal and EGS resources.
Learn more
Subsurface Accessibility
Subsurface access through drilled and completed wells is required for all forms of geothermal energy exploration, characterization, and development.
Learn more
Subsurface Enhancement and Sustainability
Achieving aggressive EGS and hydrothermal resource deployment will require improving sub-economic naturally occurring hydrothermal systems or developing fully engineered geothermal reservoirs.
Learn more
Resource Maximization
Geothermal resources contribute toward U.S. grid reliability, resilience, and security; supporting development of a robust domestic clean energy manufacturing supply chain; and more.
Learn more
Data, Modeling, and Analysis
Data underpin RD&D conducted across all GTO MYPP Research Areas. Ensuring the quality and quantity of such data is critical to support effective data dissemination in DOE-developed technology and cost models.
Learn more
Geothermal Integration and Awareness
Each of GTO’s subprograms focuses on a distinct aspect of geothermal energy and addresses challenges unique to those aspects; however, several additional GTO focus areas cut across multiple subprograms.
Learn more

Program Evaluations

GTO takes an active approach to consistently assessing program activities and effectiveness. GTO’s program evaluation activities ensure progress toward DOE, the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), and GTO goals, while also ensuring effective stewardship of DOE investments and taxpayer dollars. GTO engages in informal and ongoing program evaluation through staff meetings, project check-in calls, brainstorming discussions, and other activities. In addition, GTO adheres to EERE guidelines for formal evaluations. These EERE guidelines are outlined in two key objectives:

  1. To assess whether planned technical goals were met, and determine commercialization and market results achieved.
  2. To identify opportunities to make continuous improvements in programs in order to effectively and efficiently manage public investments.
gif image, 64 bytes
Program Evaluation Activities
Program evaluation is a core GTO function. Regular evaluation activities help ensure progress toward research objectives, alignment with DOE and EERE goals, and effective public investment. Program evaluation activities also support GTO budget planning.
Learn more
Merit Review and Competitive Project Selection
GTO-funded research projects that are submitted through an open and competitive proposal process undergo a comprehensive independent merit review by technology experts from industry, academia, and government.
Learn more
Ongoing Project and Portfolio Assessments
In addition to being subject to merit review and regular check-ins, GTO-funded projects are evaluated throughout execution. In-progress reviews include state-gate reviews, go/no-go decisions, GPRA targets, and quarterly project milestones.
Learn more
Peer Review
In adherence with EERE guidance, GTO uses an external peer review process to assess the performance of research activities and GTO as a whole. The peer review process may include a combination of peer reviews.
Learn more
Impact Evaluations
In some cases, GTO uses impact evaluations conducted by independent external experts to quantify research-attributed outcomes for geothermal. As defined by EERE, such outcomes may include economic performance (e.g., return on investment).
Learn more
Multi-Year Program Plan Updates
The results of evaluation activities can play an important role in helping GTO determine whether its investments are achieving strategic goals as well as leading to impactful energy, economic, environmental, and energy security benefits.
Learn more


Augustine, C., Ho, J., Blair, N. (2019). Electric Sector Potential to Penetration. NREL/TP-6A20-71833. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed February 9, 2021:

Connelly, E., Peney, M., Milbrandt, A., Roberts, B., Gilroy, N., and Melaina, M. (2020). Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production. NREL/TP-5400-77198. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed February 9, 2021:

Dupriest, F. E., Elks, W. C., Ottesen, S., Pastusek, P. E., Zook, J. R., Aphale, C. R. (2011). Borehole-Quality Design and Practices To Maximize Drill-Rate Performance. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Accessed October 6, 2020 (fee required):

Gallaher, M., Rogozin, A., Petrusa, J. (2010). Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies R&D Program Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International for the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office. Accessed October 6, 2020: /sites/prod/files/2014/02/f7/gtp_benefit-cost_eval_aug2010.pdf.

Gasperikova, E. and Cumming, W. (submitted 2020). “How Geophysics can Help the Geothermal Industry.” Society of Exploration Geophysicists 2020 Conference Proceedings; October 11-16, 2020, virtual. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Santa Rosa, CA: Cumming Geoscience.

Hackett, L., Blankenship, D., Robertson-Tait, A. (2020). “Analysis of Drilling Performance Using PDC Bits, Fallon FORGE Well 21-31.” 45th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Proceedings; February 10-12, 2020, Stanford, California. SGP-TR-216. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories; and Richmond, CA: GeothermEx, Inc., A Schlumberger Company. Accessed October 6, 2020:

Linvill, C., Candelaria, J., Elder, C. (2013). The Value of Geothermal Energy Generation Attributes: Aspen Report to Ormat Technologies. Aspen Environmental Group. Accessed October 6, 2020.

Liu, X., Hughes, P., McCabe, K., Spitler, J., Southard, L. (2019). GeoVision Analysis Supporting Task Force Report: Thermal Applications – Geothermal Heat Pumps. ORNL/TM – 2019-052: Oak Ridge, TN. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Accessed November 22, 2021:

Lowry, T., Finger, J., Carrigan, C., Foris, A., Kennedy, M., Corbet, T., Doughty, C., Pye, S., Sonnenthal, E. (2017). GeoVision Analysis Supporting Task Force Report: Reservoir Maintenance and Development. SAND2017-9977. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories. doi:10.2172/1394062. Accessed October 5, 2020:

Lund, J. and Toth, A. (2020). “Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2020 Worldwide Review.” World Geothermal Congress; April 26–May 2, 2020, Reykjavik, Iceland. WGC01018. Klamath Falls, OR: Oregon Institute of Technology; and Miskolc, Hungary: Ana-Geo Ltd. Accessed October 5, 2020:

McCabe, K., Beckers, K., Young, K., Blair, N. (2019). GeoVision Analysis Supporting Task Force Report: Thermal Applications. NREL/TP-6A20-71715. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed November 22, 2021:

Millstein, D., McCall, J., Macknick, J., Nicholson, S., Keyser, D., Jeong, S., and Heath, G. (2019). GeoVision Analysis Supporting Task Force Report: Impacts. Berkeley, CA and Golden, CO: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-71933. Accessed February 9, 2021:

Simmons, S., Kirby, S., Verplanck, P., Kelley, K. (2018). “Strategic and Critical Elements in Produced Geothermal Fluids from Nevada and Utah” 43rd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Proceedings; February 12-14, 2018, Stanford, California. SGP-TR-213. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah, and Salt Lake City, UT/Denver, CO: United States Geological Survey. Accessed October 6, 2020:

Snyder, D., Beckers, K., and Young, K. (2017). “Update on Geothermal Direct-Use Installations in the United States”. 42nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Proceedings; February 13-15, 2017, Stanford, California. SGP-TR-212. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed February 8, 2021:

Stringfellow, W., Dobson, P. (2020). Retrospective on Recent DOE-Funded Studies Concerning the Extraction of Rare Earth Elements & Lithium from Geothermal Brines. Berkeley, CA. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-2001359. Accessed February, 25, 2021.

U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program. (2011). Exploration Technologies: Technology Needs Assessment. Prepared by Energetics. Accessed October 5, 2020: /sites/prod/files/2014/02/f7/iet_needs_assessment_06-2011.pdf.

U.S. Department of Energy. (2019). GeoVision: Harnessing the Heat Beneath our Feet. DOE/EE-1306. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Accessed October 1, 2020: /eere/geothermal/articles/geovision-harnessing-heat-beneath-our-feet.

U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2015). Annual Energy Outlook 2015 with projections to 2040. DOE/EIA-0383(2015). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration. Accessed October 5, 2020:

U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2020). U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Wells by Production Rate. DOE/EIA-0383. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration. Accessed February 7, 2021:

Wall, A., Young, K. (2016). Doubling Geothermal Generation Capacity by 2020: A Strategic Analysis. NREL/TP-6A20-64925. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed October 6, 2020: /sites/prod/files/2016/01/f28/NREL%20Doubling%20Geothermal%20Capacity.pdf.

Young, K., Levine, A., Cook, J., Heimiller, D., Ho, J. (2019). GeoVision Analysis Supporting Task Force Report: Barriers. Golden, CO. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/PR-6A20-71641. Accessed October 6, 2020:

Wendt, D. S., Neupane, G., Davidson, C. L., Zheng, R., and Bearden, M. A. (2018). GeoVision Analysis Supporting Task Force Report: Geothermal Hybrid Systems. INL/EXT-17-42891 and PNNL-27386. Idaho Falls, ID: Idaho National Laboratory; and Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. doi:10.2172/1460735. Accessed October 5, 2020: