In some cases, GTO uses impact evaluations conducted by independent external experts to quantify research-attributed outcomes for geothermal. As defined by EERE, such outcomes may include economic performance (e.g., return on investment), knowledge diffusion (e.g., measured via various patent citation metrics), market effects (e.g., changes in the scale-up of supply and distribution chains, consumer awareness, and adoption decision practices), and benefit-cost assessments.8

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