"The clean energy transition depends on critical materials like rare earth elements (REEs) that power wind turbine generators, electric vehicles and other clean energy technologies, materials, and processes. REEs are found together in mineral deposits, which are then separated from one another to use only the REEs needed for manufacturing. Rare earth elements are uniquely difficult, as some, such as cerium, are abundant in mineral deposits and not used widely. Others, like neodymium are widely used in clean energy technologies, but much less abundant. This challenge is often referred to as the rare earth balance problem. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies Office (AMMTO) and Critical Materials Institute (CMI), an Energy Innovation Hub, are working to address this problem by finding new ways to use cerium that will shore up market demand for an abundant REE and create more value from domestic rare-earth mining operations."