Step 3 of the site-level federal fleet electrification process includes reviewing fleet sustainability requirements, zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) acquisition goals, and data on existing fleet operations.

Primary Audiences

Site ZEV Champions icon Agency Headquarters Fleet Electrification Managers
Site ZEV Champions icon Site ZEV Champions
Site Location Fleet Managers icon Site Location Fleet Managers

The agency headquarters fleet electrification managers, site ZEV champion, and site location fleet managers are the primary audiences for this process step.

The agency headquarters fleet manager, supported by the site ZEV champion and site location fleet managers, are responsible for reviewing the federal fleet sustainability requirements to understand how ZEVs assist in meeting or exceeding those fleet requirements, and reporting ZEV and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) data to determine compliance and evaluate fleet electrification progress.

Federal Fleet Executive Order and Statutory Requirements

The overarching federal fleet goals are to reduce fleet GHG emissions and transition to clean, zero-emission vehicles.

A critical step in developing a fleet electrification strategy and plan is understanding:

  • Federal fleet sustainability requirements
  • How incorporating ZEVs into fleets can help with meeting or exceeding those requirements
  • How data collection and reporting help to determine compliance with EV and EVSE requirements and evaluate progress in electrifying fleet vehicles.

The current administration policy and regulatory landscape establishes two overarching federal fleet sustainability goals:

  1. Reduce fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through reduced petroleum consumption
  2. Transition to clean, zero-emission vehicles.

Reduce fleet GHG emissions through reduced petroleum consumption—The first overarching goal is centered around the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Section 142 petroleum reduction goal (42 U.S.C. § 6374e(a)(2)), which requires each fleet to reduce their annual petroleum consumption by at least 20% compared to a FY 2005 baseline by FY 2015 and for each year thereafter.

Transition to ZEVs—The second overarching goal was established by section 102(ii) of Executive Order (EO) 14057, Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability, which requires 100% acquisition of ZEVs by FY 2035 for the federal fleet, including 100% light-duty ZEV acquisitions by FY 2027 as part of an overarching net-zero GHG emission strategy.

Other energy and environmental statutory requirements support these overarching goals, including requirements to increase alternative fuel use, use alternative fuel in dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), deploy alternative fuel infrastructure, acquire AFVs and low-GHG emitting vehicles, and right-size the fleet using a vehicle allocation methodology (VAM) study.

ZEV and EVSE Acquisition and Deployment Requirements in Executive Orders 14008 and 14057

The Biden Administration has issued two EOs—14008 and 14057, which has the goal to "transform federal procurement and operations and secure a transition to clean, zero-emission technologies," including acquisition of ZEVs and deployment of the charging infrastructure to support these vehicles.

EO 14008, Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad (signed on Jan. 27, 2021) establishes the policy of the Administration to "organize and deploy the full capacity of its agencies to combat the climate crisis." Section 205 of the EO requires the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in coordination with others such as DOE to develop a comprehensive plan to use all available federal procurement authorities to revitalize federal sustainability efforts, including acquisition of clean and zero-emission vehicles for the federal fleet.

Section 102(ii) of EO 14057, Catalyzing America's Clean Energy Industries and Jobs through Federal Sustainability (signed on Dec. 8, 2021) further details the EO 14008 policy by requiring each agency to ensure that all LDV acquisitions are ZEVs by the end of FY 2027, and all vehicle acquisitions are ZEVs by the end of FY 2035.

Sec. 102. The Federal Government shall use its scale and procurement power to achieve "100 percent zero-emission vehicle acquisitions by 2035, including 100 percent zero-emission light-duty vehicle acquisitions by 2027"

To support the transition of the federal fleet to ZEVs, Section 201 of the EO requires agencies to work with CEQ and OMB to propose and establish targets for the annual acquisition of ZEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure for FY 2022 and onwards. A key aspect to this effort is the requirement to annually update a Zero-Emission Fleet Strategic Plan that includes:

  • Optimizing fleet size and composition
  • Deploying ZEV re-fueling infrastructure
  • Maximizing acquisition and deployment of light-, medium-, and heavy-duty ZEVs where the GSA offers one or more ZEV options for that vehicle class.

The site-level fleet electrification planning process outlined in the ZEV Ready Center is designed to satisfy much of this planning requirement.

Ramping Up to 100% Light Duty ZEV Acquisitions

Agencies' focus through FY 2027 should be on determining how they can ramp up to 100% LD ZEV acquisitions. This includes answering the questions listed on the right.

Many of these questions are covered in the Zero-Emission Fleet Strategic Plan using the analyses to identify ZEV and EVSE opportunities for each fleet location.

What is the "right" ramp rate toward 100% LDV acquisitions in FY 2027?

What vehicles/types can be electrified today and will be available by FY 2027?

How can we plan for the deployment of charging infrastructure to support future EV acquisitions?

How can federal fleets move toward transforming their fleets to ZEVs (ZEV Ready)?

How Acquisition and Deployment of ZEVs and EVSE Help Achieve Federal Fleet Requirements

Acquiring and deploying ZEVs and related charging infrastructure supports agencies in achieving the following fleet requirements as well as the two overarching federal fleet sustainability goals.

Federal Fleet Requirements

Statute or EO Requirement Alignment with Fleet Electrification
EO 14057 100% of LDV acquisitions are ZEVs by FY 2027; all acquisitions by 2035 Fleets must work with CEQ to increase deployment of ZEVs and support EVSE through FY 2027
Annually update a Zero-Emission Fleet Strategic Plan Agencies must annually update and submit to CEQ a Zero-Emission Fleet Strategic Plan to achieve ZEV acquisition and EVSE deployment goals
EISA Sec. 142 Reduce petroleum 20% from FY 2005 baseline All electricity used to charge BEVs or PHEVs displaces petroleum use in fleet vehicles
Increase alternative fuel use 10% from FY 2005 baseline All electricity used to charge BEVs or PHEVs is counted toward agencies’ alternative fuel use requirements
EISA Sec. 141 Requires acquisition of low-GHG-emitting vehicles Almost all BEVs and PHEVs meet EPA’s definition of a low-GHG-emitting vehicle
EISA Sec. 246 Requires installation of renewable fuel pumps EVSE qualify as renewable fuel pumps if the electricity is from renewable sources or agency purchases RECs
FMR Sec. 102-34.50 Conduct a VAM to right-size fleets to mission Replacing inefficient vehicles with ZEVs will yield higher environmental benefits and return on investment
EPAct 1992 AFVs must represent 75% of covered LDV acquisitions ZEVs (BEVs, PHEVs, and FCEVs) are classified as AFVs in meeting EPAct 1992 AFV acquisition requirements
EPAct 2005, Sec. 701 Use alternative fuel in dual-fueled AFVs PHEVs are considered dual-fueled AFVs and must fully charge with electricity at their garaged locations
EISA Section 142: Petroleum Reduction

ZEVs help agencies achieve their EISA Section 142 petroleum reduction goals by using electricity to displace petroleum use in completing the vehicles fleet's mission. Replacing a conventional-fueled vehicle with a BEV or fuel cell vehicle provides a 100% reduction in that vehicle's petroleum use. Replacing a conventional-fueled vehicle with a PHEV provides substantial reductions in petroleum use, depending on the amount of electricity as well as the amount and type of conventional or alternative fuel used.

EISA Section 142: Alternative Fuel Use

Electricity is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 (see 42 U.S.C. § 6374(g)(2)). The use of electricity by EVs is counted toward meeting each agency's EISA Section 142 goals to increase annual alternative fuel use by at least 10% relative to an FY 2005 baseline by FY 2015 and for each year thereafter.

EPAct 1992: AFV Acquisition

EPAct 1992 Section 303 (42 U.S.C. § 13212(b)) requires at least 75% of covered LDV acquisitions by federal agencies be AFVs. Agencies must accumulate 75 credits per 100 covered vehicles acquired within each fiscal year to comply and agencies receive one acquisition credit for each non-exempt BEV or PHEV acquired.

EISA Section 246: Renewable Fuel Pumps

Agencies may satisfy EISA Section 246 requirements by installing EV charging stations at federal fleet fueling centers, provided either (1) the electricity used to charge the vehicle(s) is from a renewable source, or (2) agencies have purchased renewable energy credits (RECs) equal to or greater than the amount of electricity used to charge the vehicles.

EISA Section 141: Low GHG-Emitting Vehicle Acquisition

Almost all BEVs and PHEVs meet the definition of low-GHG emitting vehicles in compliance with the EISA Section 141 acquisition requirements.

GSA FMR Section 102-34.50: Right-Size Fleets

Agencies should consider conducting a VAM to identify the optimal vehicle size and mix. Conducting a new VAM study to update an agency's optimal fleet profile in FAST may identify opportunities to replace inefficient vehicles, eliminate underutilized vehicles, and maximize ZEV deployment. Replacing inefficient vehicles yields greater environmental benefits, and higher utilization rates for ZEVs offer a better return on investment.

EPAct 2005, Sec. 701: Alternative Fuel Use in Dual-Fueled AFVs

PHEVs are considered dual-fueled AFVs for Section 701 compliance. These vehicles are expected to use only alternative fuel (i.e., fully charge with electricity) at their garaged locations.

Capturing and Reporting Data

The data collection and reporting requirements pertaining to EVs and EVSE are detailed on the Capturing and Reporting ZEV and EVSE Data web page, including:

  • Annual vehicle-level data (VLD) reporting in FAST
  • Measuring electricity use by EVs
  • EVSE quarterly status update tracker report in FAST
  • Year-end EVSE reporting in FAST, and
  • Other annual federal fleet sustainability reporting requirements

Becoming ZEV Ready

Commitment Ready

As part of the Commitment Ready component of the ZEV Ready certification, the agency headquarters fleet manager, site ZEV champion, and site location fleet manager(s) should review the information in this section, including the federal fleet sustainability requirements, how the acquisition and deployment of ZEVs and EVSE help agencies meet those requirements, and capturing, managing, reporting, and evaluating fleet data.

Phase ZEV Ready Step Actions


Commitment Ready

3. Review Federal Fleet Requirements, Goals, and Data

The agency headquarters fleet manager, site ZEV champion, and site location fleet manager should review the federal fleet sustainability requirements, how the acquisition and deployment of ZEVs and EVSE help agencies meet those requirements, and capturing, managing, reporting, and evaluating fleet data.


Return to the ZEV Ready Center