The Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal (CDR) Program advances diverse CDR approaches to facilitate the removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on the gigatonne scale per year by 2050. The program emphasizes a rigorous analysis of the life cycle, techno-economic, and equal justice impacts of prospective CDR technologies. Investments are made in CDR technologies with commercialization potentials, such as direct air and ocean capture, biomass with carbon removal, and mineralization reactions, to remove legacy CO2 emissions and address emissions from hard-to-decarbonize sectors.

The Carbon Conversion Program invests in research, development, and demonstration of new and innovative technologies that convert CO2 into value-added products. Via three conversion pathways, including mineralization, catalytic conversion, and uptake, CO2 is converted into products such as CO2-based building materials, fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts. In addition, the Carbon Conversion program also invests in a new integrated approach called reactive capture and conversion (RCC). RCC refers to a system that integrates CO2 capture from a dilute gas stream and CO2 conversion into value-added products without requiring a purified COintermediate stream. The efficacy of these technologies is evaluated by robust life cycle analysis, techno-economic analysis, and equitable distributive justice impacts.

The CO2 Removal and Conversion Program assists DOE in reaching the stated climate goals of achieving a net-zero carbon U.S. economy by 2050 through investments in relevant, innovative technologies in a just and equitable way.