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At the end of the 2013 model year (MY), Toyota, which neither bought nor sold credits between 2010 and 2013, had by far the highest balance of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credits at more than 100 million credits. Tesla produces electric vehicles exclusively and therefore does not need to retain credits as an off-set. Tesla sold nearly all their credits and ended the model year with a balance of just 1,271 credits. Fiat Chrysler, Mercedes, and Ferrari purchased credits during the period from 2010 to 2013. By the end of MY 2013, only five manufacturers (Jaguar LandRover, Aston Martin, McLaren, and Lotus) had a deficit of CAFE credits. This does not, however, mean any manufacturer is out of compliance, as the regulation allows for a deficit to be carried over for up to three model years.
Cumulative CAFE Credit Balances by Manufacturer as of the End of MY 2013
|Jaguar Land Rover||-927,143|
|Credits Purchased||Fiat Chrysler||144,383||500,000||1,048,689||1,693,072|
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles: Manufacturer Performance Report for the 2013 Model Year, EPA-420-R-15-008a, Table 5-2 and Table 4-1, March 2015.