Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints map the flow of energy supply, demand, and losses as well as greenhouse gas combustion emissions in diverse U.S. manufacturing industries, based on U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data for 2010.

Energy and carbon footprints map energy use and carbon emissions in manufacturing from energy supply to end use. The footprints show where energy is used and lost—and the associated greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are emitted. Each footprint visualizes the flow of energy (in the form of fuel, electricity, or steam) to major end uses in manufacturing, including boilers, power generators, process heaters, process coolers, machine-driven equipment, facility HVAC, and lighting.

Note: The manufacturing energy and carbon footprints were updated in September 2018 (available here) using the most recent EIA MECS data for 2014 and updated assumptions. Earlier footprints with EIA MECS data for 2006 are available here. Detailed analysis of the footprints and sector rankings, utilizing 2006 data, is available in the U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis report. For more information, email the webmaster.


Footprints are available for 15 manufacturing sectors that collectively represent 95% of all manufacturing energy use, as well as for U.S. manufacturing as a whole in 2010. The 16 footprints are accessible through the links below.

Footprint Content

Each footprint presents data at two levels of detail. The first page provides a high-level view of supply and end use, while the second page shows details of how energy is distributed to onsite end uses. The analyses are based on manufacturing energy consumption data from the Energy Information Administration’s 2010 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), along with referenced energy loss and emission factors, and input from industry and subject matter experts.

Footprints show aggregate data for each sector, including:

  • Electricity and steam generated offsite and transferred to the facility, as well as electricity and steam generated onsite
  • Fuel, electricity, and steam consumed by major end uses in a manufacturing facility
  • Offsite and onsite energy losses due to the generation, transmission and distribution, and end use consumption of energy (some losses are unrecoverable)
  • GHG emissions released during the combustion of fuel

Footprint Purpose

Footprints can help users to better understand the distribution of energy use in each industry and to compare use, loss, and carbon emissions within and across sectors. Areas of high energy consumption or significant energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, or developing new technologies. The footprints provide a macro-scale benchmark for evaluating the benefits of improving energy efficiency and for prioritizing opportunity analysis.

Additional Analysis



The U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis report expands on the Energy and Carbon Footprints that were based on the 2006 EIA MECS data to trace energy from supply (fuel, electricity, and steam) to major end-use applications in U.S. manufacturing. The report ranks the energy use, energy losses, and energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 15 sectors.

Understanding Energy and Carbon Footprints
Information to help understand the footprints.

Scope of Footprints
Descriptions of manufacturing sectors by NAICS code.

Definitions and Assumptions
A glossary of footprint terms and a listing of footprint assumptions, including generation and end use equipment efficiencies, cogeneration efficiencies, process heating losses, steam distribution to end uses, and fuel combustion emission factors.

Footprint analysis data sources.

Manufacturing energy Sankey diagrams map the flow of energy supply, demand, and losses in the U.S. manufacturing sector using data from the AMO Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints. The Sankey diagrams complement the Footprints by graphically presenting weighted energy flow lines. The energy pathway—from primary sources (fuel, steam, and electricity) to facility end use—is shown in a single image, including the energy that is applied to produce products and the combined energy losses. The Sankey diagrams and the Footprints both rely on energy use data from the 2010 EIA Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey.

Static Manufacturing Energy Sankey Diagrams

Dynamic Manufacturing Energy Sankey Tool

Users can pan, zoom, and customize the display to explore the flow of energy use or compare energy consumption across manufacturing subsectors. Selected images can be saved for export.