The U.S. Department of Energy has many recent awards under various research Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) related to the water-energ nexus. The FOAs are generally listed in reverse chronological order with tables of projects that were funded from that particular FOA. The this list will be updated as new projects are funded. By matching recent FOAs and the projects funded from them, this list demonstrates the links between water-energy program needs and the eventual research projects addressing those needs.

Advanced Manufacturing Office SBIR - 2015

In support small businesses and innovation research, these water desalination projects will persue a range of cost effective solutions to meet our growing need for more secure sources of water and power. 

ResearchersProject TitleState
Xergy, Inc.PEM based Vacuum Desalination SystemDE
AquaneersPhotothermal Solar CellNY
Advanced Cooling TechnologiesSolar Thermal Assisted Vacuum Freezing Desalination of Seawater at the Triple PointPA
Hi-Z Technology, Inc.Renewable Energy Forward Osmosis Desalination SystemCA
Savengy TechnologiesHigh Efficiency Condenser with Compressor for Multi-Effect Solar DesalinationFL
Polestar TechnologiesSolar Powered Dewvaporation Desalination SystemMA
Luna InnovationsNanophotonics Enhanced Direct Solar Membrane Distillation Process for Desalination of WaterVA
ITN Energy SystemsEconomical Self-Powered Portable Clean Energy Desalination SystemCO
Bioenergy Technologies Office FOA - 2015
ResearchersProject TitleState
Colorado School of Mines                                              Producing Algae and Co-Products for Energy (PACE)                                                                                                                                                                 CO
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy ARID FOA- 2015

The Advanced Research In Dry cooling (ARID) program aims to develop low-cost, highly efficient and scalable dry-cooling technologies for thermoelectric power plants.

ResearchersProject TitleState
Advanced Cooling Technologies, IncHeat-Pipe PCM Based Cool Storage for Air Cooled SystemsPA
Applied Research Associates, IncActive Cooling Thermally Inducedd Vapor-Polymerization EffectFL
Colorado State UniversityUltra-Efficient Turbo-Compression CoolingCO
Electric Power Research Institute, IncIndirect Dry Cooling Using Recirculating Encapsulated Phase-Change MaterialsCA
General Electric CompanyA Low-Cost Heat Pump with Advanced Refrigerannt/Absorbent SeparationNY
PARCMetamaterials-Enhanced Passive Radiative Cooling PanelsCA
SRI InternationalSpectraly-Tuned All-Polymer Technology for Inducing Cooling Rediative Cooling for Cold StorageCA
Stoney Brook UniversityCondensing Flue Gas Water Vapor for Cool StorageNY
TDA Research, IncNovel Desiccant Cycle for Flue Gas Water Recovery and Cool StorageCO
University of CincinnatiEnhanced Air-Cooling System with Optimized Asynchronously Cooled Thermal Energy StorageOH
University of ColoradoRediative Cooled-Cold Storage Modules and SystemsCO
University of MarylandNovel Microemulsion Absorption Systems for Supplemental Power Plant Cooling


University of MarylandNovel Polymer Composite Heat Exchanger for Dry Cooling of Power PlantsMD
University of WisconsinOptimized Air-Side Heat Transfer Surfaces Via Advanced Additive ManufacturingWI
Office of Fossil Energy FOA- 2014

The Office of Fossile Energy (FE) funded these project in 2014. The projects aim to improve the design, construction, and operation of fossil energy systems.

ResearchersProject TitleState
Gas Technology InstituteSimultaneous Waste Heat and Water RecoveryIL
Southern Company Services, IncField Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat RecoveryAL
Carnegie Mellon UniversityForward Osmosis Process Utilizing Low Grade HeatPA
Porifera, IncLow‐Grade Heat and CO2 at Power Plants for Water TreatmentCA
Southern Research InstituteTreatment of Produced Water from Carbon Sequestration SitesAL
University of PittsburghMembrane Distillation Technology Utilizing Waste Heat for Treatment of High-Salinity WastewaterPA
General Electric CompanyWater Desalination Using Multiphase Turbo-ExpanderNY
Board of Trustees of the University of IllinoisSupercritical System for Efficient Produced Water Treatment and Power GenerationIL
Research Triangle InstituteFouling-Resistant Membranes for Treating Concentrated BrinesNC
Alstom Power, Inc.Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel DevelopmentCT
Altex Technologies CorporationLow-Cost Recuperative Heat Exchanger for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (scCO2) Power SystemsCA
Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc.High-Temperature Heat Exchangers Component Test Facility Engineering for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Generator DevelopmentOH
Brayton Energy, LLCHigh-Volume Manufacturing Process Development for Low-Cost High-Performance Heat Exchangers for sCO2 ApplicationsNH
Thar Energy LLCMicrochannel Heat Exchangers for Fossil-Fired Supercritical CO2 CyclesPA
Mohawk Innovative Technology, IncHigh Temperature Heat Exchange Design and Fabrication for Systems with Large Pressure DifferentialsNY
West Virginia University Research CorporationCeramic High-Temperature Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger and Heat RecuperatorsWV
Ceralink, Inc.Additive Manufacturing for Cost-Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and RecuperatorsNY
Salt Lake CityCompact, Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers - Ceramatec, IncUT
Southwest Research InstituteThin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power CyclesTX
Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.Oxidation/Corrosion Model to Predict the Performance of Structural Alloys in Supercritical CO2NC
The University of Texas at El PasoOpen-Cycle Oxy-Combustion SystemTX
Small Business Innovation Research Program FOA - 2014

In addition to the above research, FE and the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), have awarded the following projects directed at reduced water usage in power plants.

ResearchersProject TitleState
UltrametOpen Cell Foam Dry CoolingHeat ExchangersCA
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.Dry Cooling EfficiencyPA
Altex Technologies CorporationCondenser Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Models for Advanced Low Cost Dry Cooling systemsCA
Bioenergy Technologies Office FOA - 2013

An objective of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is to fund research to support outdoor phototrophic algae R&D related to water use in algal production systems. In 2013, BETO released a FOA to provide advancements in sustainable algal production. One of the awarded projects develops water recycling during algal production. (2013 Sustainable Algal Production FOA)

ResearchersProject titleState
Cal PolyWater and Nutrient Recycling in Algal BiofuelsCA
Water Power Program FOA - 2013

In 2013, the Water Power Program release three FOAs (Water Power Program, 2013) specific to the water-energy nexus: the Marine and Hydrokinetics Environmental Effects Assessment and Monitoring, the Marine and Hydrokinetics System Performance Advancement, and the Marine and Hydrokinetic Testing Infrastructure Development. The Water Power Program funded 15 projects associated with the water-energy nexus from three FOAs totaling $15.7 million. (2013 Marine and Hydrokinetics Environmental Effects Assessment and Monitoring FOA, 2013 Marine and Hydrokinetics System Performance Advancement, 2013 Marine and hydrokinetics Testing Infrastructure Development)

ResearchersProject TitleState
Dehlsen Associates, LLCControl Software for Centipod Wave DeviceCA
Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLCControl System for Grid-connected TidGen SystemMA
Resolute Marine Energy, IncAlgorithm for Wave Energy ConverterMA
ABB, IncCompact Direct Drive GeneratorNC
Columbia Power TechnologiesPower Take-off Module, Drivetrain, and Generator AssemblyVA
Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLCAdvanced Power Take-off SystemMA
Ocean Energy USA, LLCCost-effective Hull DesignCA
Ocean Power Technologies, IncFloat and Spar ComponentsNJ
University of MaineFish and TidGen InteractionsMA
Electric Power Research Institute, IncUndersea electricity Transmission and Marine SpeciesCA
Oak Ridge National LaboratoryFish Movements & Tidal Energy TurbinesTN
University of WashingtonSea Mammals and tidal TurbinesWA
Oregon State UniversitySound Levels from Offshore Energy Installation and OperationOR
H.T. Harvey & AssociatesCharacterize Fish Communities near Wave Energy DeploymentsCA
Oak Ridge National LaboratoryCharacterize Electromagnetic Field EmissionsCA
Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy FOA - 2012

The mission of the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) is to identify and fund research to translate science into breakthrough technologies that, if successfully developed, will create the foundation for entirely new industries. In 2012, ARPA-E used an Open FOA to invest in a variety of projects that explore different aspects of the water energy nexus. The three projects totaling $4.5 million are high risk and focus applied research to create real-world solutions to important problems that could provide technological leaps in the water-energy space.(2012 Open FOA)

ResearchersProject TitleState
Brown UniversityCustomized Tidal Power Conversion DevicesRI
MITScalable Low Power Water Treatment SystemMA
Harvard UniversityFuel Bacteria CO2 Water and Solar EnergyMA
Yale UniversityClosed Loop System Using Waste Heat ElectricityCT
Proton Energy SystemsRegenerative Fuel CellsCT
Sea EngineeringMeasuring Real Time Wave Data Ocean Wave BuoyCA
NanOasisUse Carbon Nanoubes Efficient Reverse OsmosisCA
Sun CatalytixEnergy Water and SunlightMA
University of North Dakota EERCWater Efficient Power GenerationND
university of North Dakota EERCExtracting Magnesium SeawaterND
Algaeventure Systems (AVS)Fuel AlgaeOH
University of WisconsonTurning sunlight CO2 and Water FuelWI
Cornell UniversityEfficient Photobioreactor Algae Based FuelNY
Fuel Cell Technologies Office FOA - 2012

The hydrogen and fuel cell technologies that are required to produce hydrogen are varied. In 2012, the Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) used the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funds to support one project to examine using waste water for hydrogen production. (2012 Small Bsiness Innovation Research FOA)

ResearchersProject TitleState
Various National LabsSystems AnalysisN/A
ArbsourceProduce Hydrogen from Waste WaterAZ
Office of Fossil Energy FOA - 2012/11

The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) often works with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) when issuing FOAs. In 2012 and 2013, NETL released FOAs related to unconventional oil and gas technologies (NETL FOA, 2012 & 2013). The purpose of these FOAs was to usher research to increase domestic oil and natural gas production, assure the reliability of the natural gas delivery system, and produce a cleaner environment through R&D implementation. Because of the water resources needed for oil and gas production and the subsequent water management issues, many FE projects inherently deal with water-energy nexus issues. (NETL 2012 FOANETL 2013 FOA)

ResearchersProject TitleState
University of PittsburghCO2 thickener for improved EORPA
GroundMetrics, Inc.Depth to Surface Electromagnetic Imaging for HydrofracturingCA
NETLReal-time sensing for Wellbore IntegrityPA
University of Texas at AustinNanoparticl-stabilized foamsTX
Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America FOA - 2011

FE and NETL provide oversight and review of the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America (RPSEA). RPSEA was established in 2006 by section 999 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. NETL selected RPSEA to manage the distribution of $375 million over 10 years for research and development to enable new technologies necessary to produce more secure, abundant, and affordable domestic energy supplies and meet the nation‘s growing need for domestic hydrocarbon resources (RPSEA, n.d. a). In 2011, the Small Producers Program FOAs and Unconventional Resources Program FOAs funded 10 projects related to the water-energy nexus totaling $17.1 million. Funding decisions have not yet been made from a 2013 RPSEA FOA. (2011 Small Producers Program FOA, 2011 Unconventional Resources Program FOA)

ResearcherProject TitleState
GSI Environmental Inc.Air and Stray Gas Emissions and Produced Brine CharacterizationCanada
Drexel UniversityAdvanced Treatment of Shale Gas Fracturing WaterPA
The University of OklahomaSubsurface Brine DisposalOK
New Mexico Institute of Mining and TechnologyHumidification Dehumidification Treatment Process of Produced WaterNM
Utah Geological SurveyProduced Water Management ToolsUT
The University of Texas at AustinAdvanced Particle GelsTX
Gas Technology InstituteAdvanced Hydraulic Fracturing MethodsIL
Colorado School of MinesWeb-Based Tool for Unconventional Natural Gas DevelopmentCO
Colorado State UniversityOptimized Fluid Management in Shale Gas OperationsCO
The University of MissouriParticle Gel Conformance ControlMI
Advanced Manufacturing Office FOA - 2011

The mission of the Advance Manufacturing Office (AMO) is to advance manufacturing science and technology to enable rapid, low-cost, energy-efficient manufacturing. Through a 2011 Innovative Manufacturing Initiative FOA, AMO has funded one research project at the water-energy nexus. (2011 Innovative Manufacturing Initiative FOA)

ResearchersProject TitleState
Research Triangle InstituteAdvanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water ReuseNC
Geothermal Technologies Office FOA

The Geothermal Technologies Office funds projects to advance geothermal energy production.

ResearchersProject TitleState
Argonne National LabGeothermal Water UseIL
Argonne National LabLife Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utilitie Scale Geothermal SystemsIL
Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability - 2009

In 2009, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) issued a FOA calling for research related to interconnection-level electric Infrastructure planning (NETL, 2009). Using funds appropriated by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the FOA lead to funding for one water-energy project that examines water availability for thermoelectric cooling and competing uses under water stressed conditions.

ResearchersProject TitleState
Sandia National LabInterconnection Tranmission PlanningNM

Water-Energy Resources