In 1997, Congress directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct assessment, remedial action, and site closure activities for Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) retains responsibility for determining potential eligibility for site cleanup under FUSRAP and for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) after site remediation and a two-year operating and maintenance period. Roles and responsibilities are established in a 1999 Memorandum of Understanding.
Before a site is transferred, USACE must determine that the selected remedy is operating successfully, ensuring the site is protective of human health and the environment. If residual radioactive contamination will remain on-site, such as in groundwater or inaccessible soil areas, LTS&M requirements may include environmental monitoring, inspections, or management of institutional controls to ensure protectiveness. In these instances, USACE conducts a two-year-long Operations and Maintenance period to demonstrate that site hazards are controlled. During this time, LM develops an LTS&M plan for the site.