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The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emission, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model is a full life-cycle model for evaluating the energy and emission impacts of various vehicle and fuel combinations. The first version of the GREET model was released in 1996. Since then, the model has been updated and expanded to include additional vehicle types and fuels. The results below are from GREET Model 1.8d.1. The California grid mix (bars outlined in green) was chosen due to the high renewable energy mix in that state. In contrast, the West Virginia grid mix (bars outlined in black) is primarily coal. Both of these are compared against the average U.S. grid mix for various vehicle technologies.

Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies
Graphic showing the various well-to-wheel emissions for various fuels and vehicle technologies. For more detailed information, see supporting information below.

Note: H2 = hydrogen; High-T = high-temperature

Supporting Information

Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies
Fuel Grams of CO2-Equivalent
per Mile
Vehicle Technology
Gasoline (Today's Vehicle) 450 Conventional Internal
Combustion Vehicles
Gasoline 340
Natural Gas 270
Gasoline 235 Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Natural Gas 185
Diesel 220
Corn Ethanol (E85) 180
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) 90
Gasoline & 2035 U.S. Grid Mix 230 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
(power-split, 10-mile electric range)
Gasoline & 2010 WV Grid Mix 280
Gasoline 2010 CA Grid Mix 232
Gasoline & Ultra-low Carbon Renewable 195
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & 2035 U.S. Grid Mix 105
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & 2010 WV Grid Mix 143
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & 2010 CA Grid Mix 91
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & Ultra-low carbon Renewable 70
Gasoline & 2035 U.S. Grid Mix 270 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
(series, 40-mile electric range)
Gasoline & 2010 WV Grid Mix 392
Gasoline & 2010 CA Grid Mix 215
Gasoline & Ultra-low Carbon Renewable 155
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & 2035 U.S. Grid Mix 180
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & 2010 WV Grid Mix 300
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & 2010 CA Grid Mix 108
Cellulosic Ethanol (E85) & Ultra-low carbon Renewable 63
2035 U.S. Grid Mix 230 Battery Electric Vehicles
(150-mile range)
2010 WV Grid Mix 440
2010 CA Grid Mix 85
Ultra-low Carbon Renewable 0
H2 - Distributed Natural Gas 200 Fuel Cell
Electric Vehicles
H2 - Coal Gasification w/Sequestration 95
H2 - Biomass Gasification 37
H2 - Nuclear High-T Electrolysis or Ultra-low Carbon Renewable 42

Source: Argonne National Laboratory, GREET Model 1.8d. 1.

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