Sixty percent of the 33 million EVs expected by 2030 are projected to be in suburban areas, according to a report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Of the remainder, 20% will be in rural locations and another 20% in urban areas. The charging network needs for EVs are different depending on whether EV owners live in rural, suburban, or urban areas. While electricity from public DC fast chargers would be the most utilized in urban areas (40%), in rural and suburban areas, Level 1 (L1) and Level 2 (L2) chargers in single family homes are expected to meet the majority of EV electricity needs (82% and 64%, respectively). Although DC fast charging receives a lot of attention, increasing the availability of L1 and L2 charging is critical for the overall transition to EVs. 

2030 EV Fleet by Community Category and Relative Share of Electricity by Charging Type			 Charging Type	Rural	Suburban	Urban Single Family Home (L1/L2)	82%	64%	29% Multifamily Home (L2)	2%	4%	9% Workplace (L2)	2%	4%	7% Public (L2)	4%	8%	15% Public DC Fast	10%	20%	40% All	20%	60%	20%

Notes: 

  • Level 1 (L1) refers to 120V AC charging from a typical US household outlet.
  • Level 2 (L2) refers to 240V AC charging like that used for a household electric dryer.
  • DC fast charging in this study refers to charge rates of 150 kW or higher.
  • Low power DC charging (e.g., 50 kW) is omitted from the study’s baseline scenario on the basis of assumed driver preferences for DC charging that is as fast as possible and 2030 vehicle technology scenarios where batteries are capable of accepting at least 150 kW of peak power.

Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, The 2030 National Charging Network: Estimating U.S. Light-Duty Demand for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure, June 2023.