A 2020 conventional gasoline small sport utility vehicle (SUV) emitted an average of 420 grams of greenhouse gas (GHG) carbon dioxide equivalents per mile (g CO2e/mi) when considering the entire life cycle of the vehicle, from cradle-to-grave and well-to-wheels. A 2020 battery-electric vehicle with 300 miles of real-world range (BEV300) using the average U.S. grid mix emitted about half of that—206 g CO2e/mi. Estimates for future vehicle and fuel combinations show even lower life cycle emissions when compared to their current counterparts. A 2050 BEV300 using a renewable electricity mix is estimated to emit 43 g CO2e/mi.
Note: FCEV = fuel cell electric vehicle. HEV = hybrid-electric vehicle. BEV = battery-electric vehicle. PHEV50 = plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with 50-mile electric range. ICE = internal combustion engine. NG = natural gas. E85 = 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. LFG = landfill gas.
Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies & Bioenergy Technologies, Program Record #21003.