Some key materials used for manufacturing lithium-ion batteries are lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and natural graphite, which come from more than 30 different countries. In 2017, Australia, Chile, and Argentina produced 91% of all lithium while the rest of the world supplied the remaining 9%. The Democratic Republic of Congo produced 59% of the world’s cobalt. Other lithium-ion battery materials, such as nickel, have a more even distribution of production throughout the world. Learn more about U.S. efforts in lithium here.
|Rest of World||9%|
|Cobalt||110,000||Democratic Republic of Congo||59%|
|Rest of World||31%|
|Rest of the World||61%|
|Manganese||16 million||South Africa||33%|
|Rest of the World||37%|
|Natural graphite||1.2 million||China||67%|
|Rest of the World||12%|
Source: Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, “Are there enough materials to cover li-ion batteries?” August 15, 2018.