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This table lists the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for fuel cell backup power systems.

More information about targets can be found in the Fuel Cells section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan.

Technical Targets: Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems (1–10 kWe) Operating on Direct Hydrogen

CharacteristicUnits2015 Status a2020 Targets
Lifetimeyears1015
Durability bhours8,00010,000
Energy efficiency c%5060
Mean time between failuresyears55
Ambient temperature range°C-20 to 40-50 to 50
NoisedB at 1 m6560
Start-up time dseconds6015
Availability%99.796.3
Equipment cost e$/kW6,100 f1,000
Annual maintenance cost e$/kW3020
Annualized total cost of ownership g$/kW500200

a Unless otherwise stated, status based on input from RFI DE-FOA-0000738.
b Time until 10% voltage degradation when operated on a backup power duty cycle.
c Ratio of DC output energy from the power plant to the lower heating value of the input fuel (hydrogen), averaged over duty cycle.
d Time indicated is start-up time for the fuel cell. The backup power system, including hybridized batteries, is expected to provide uninterruptible power.
e Excludes tax credits and subsidies.
f NREL, "Current Fuel Cell System Low Volume Price by Application."
g Annualized cost of ownership, including cost of capital equipment, installation, operation and maintenance, fuel, and fuel storage. Based on a 5 kW system with 10-year lifetime.