Deconstruction & Fractionation

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To convert biomass into a biofuel, it must first be deconstructed into its component chemicals. One can generally differentiate between deconstruction processes by the temperature at which they take place. A variety of intermediates can be formed depending on the conditions used in this process.
  
After preprocessing and/or pretreatment, deconstruction processes can be divided into two categories: (1) high-temperature deconstruction and (2) low-temperature deconstruction. 

High-Temperature Deconstruction refers to processes performed at or above 200°C and includes deconstruction processes such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal and solvent liquefaction, and gasification.

Low-Temperature Deconstruction refers to processes performed below 200°C and includes deconstruction processes such as enzymatic and acid hydrolysis.

Shown above are key areas of Deconstruction & Fractionation and Synthesis & Upgrading research and development, which can be linked to form a complete conversion pathway from feedstock to products. The arrows represent the transition of organic matter from feedstock to intermediates to end products, showing the diversity of accessible conversion.