Programs in this area are intended to ensure secure and sustainable supply chains for the clean economy. This includes production of, and substitutes for critical materials for clean energy related products, such as advanced batteries, electric motor/ generator magnets, power semiconductors, hydrogen production, and other clean energy technologies. Materials of interest include:
- Rare earth elements,
- Lithium, and
- Platinum group metals.
Programs in this area also seek to establish a circular economy for a broad range of materials through material and product design, recycling technology development, and reverse supply chain logistics.