The Office of Science is privileged to work with the most talented scientists and engineers in the country to advance the Office's mission. The Office of Science bestows several awards to recognize this talent at different stages of an individual's research career, and an honor to recognize distinguished DOE laboratory staff.

The Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) recognizes scientists and engineers who, while early in their research careers, show exceptional potential for leadership at the frontiers of scientific knowledge. The PECASE Award was established in 1996 and is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent research careers. The awards are conferred annually at the White House following recommendations from participating agencies. 

The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award is a Secretarial award recognizing mid-career scientists and engineers showing exceptional contributions in research and development supporting the Department of Energy and its mission to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award was established in 1959 in honor of a scientist who helped elevate American physics to world leadership. E. O. Lawrence was the inventor of the cyclotron, an accelerator of subatomic particles, and received the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for that achievement. 

The Enrico Fermi Award is a Presidential award recognizing career achievement in science and technology that benefits the nation. The Enrico Fermi Presidential Award was established in 1956 as a memorial to the legacy of this Italian-born naturalized American citizen and 1938 Nobel Laureate in physics, who achieved the first nuclear chain reaction. 

The Office of Science Distinguished Scientists Fellows is an opportunity that recognizes staff at DOE National Laboratories showing achievement, leadership, service, and impact related to the DOE/Office of Science and its components. Awarded on a competitive basis to particularly eminent and accomplished DOE National Laboratory scientists, these Fellows are expected to develop, sustain, and promote scientific and academic excellence in Office of Science research through collaborations between institutions of higher education and national laboratories.

Many of the scientists and engineers working with the Office of Science have been recognized with other prominent awards and honors, including DOE Nobel LaureatesFederal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer Awards, and R&D 100 Awards.