Highly Replicable and Integrated System for Mitigating Methane Emissions from Natural Gas-Fired Lean-Burn Engines – Kansas State University (Manhattan, Kansas) plans to manufacture a low-cost integrated system for eliminating methane emissions from natural gas engines. The technology may be designed to mitigate methane emissions from all industrial engines and reduce their operational costs and fuel consumption while enhancing stability and efficiency. If successful, the system could be incorporated with various new and old industrial engines without any specific limitations and eliminate the costs associated with on-site utilities typically required in other technical approaches.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $250,000
Total Value: $1,250,000


The Oxiperator for Methane Slip from Lean Burn Gas Engines and Much More – Prabhu Energy Labs (Mission Viejo, California) plans to implement a new technology, the Oxiperator, a U.S.-patented porous heat exchanger that could provide a cost-effective solution for oxidizing methane slip from lean-burn natural gas engines. The technology could also pave the way for oxidizing weak methane emissions from coal mines, abandoned mines and wells, and landfills. This project provides two pathways: (1) a Tail Oxiperator that could be easily and rapidly deployed on engine exhaust and (2) a Tweener Oxiperator that would not just oxidize, but also increase engine efficiency and output.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $250,019
Total Value: $1,250,019


Reducing Methane Emissions with an Engine Fuel Reformer – Southwest Research Institute (San Antonio, Texas) aims to reform an engine’s natural gas fuel feed into a hydrogen-containing fuel mixture that maximizes methane oxidation during combustion. The objective is to reduce methane emissions by 20%-60% using a cost-effective modular approach that can be rapidly scaled to various lean-burn, large-bore natural gas engines. Researchers will develop a modular natural gas fuel reformer to install on the feed fuel line on a 15-inch piston bore, 16-inch power stroke engine owned and operated by Cooper Machinery Services. They will leverage patented high-impulse, plasma-source technology to convert a portion of the natural gas fuel into in-line combustion additives.

DOE Funding: $596,245
Non-DOE Funding: $150,300
Total Value: $746,545


On-board Reformation Device for Methane Abatement from Gas Engines UChicago Argonne LLC (Chicago, Illinois) and other researchers have identified methane slip (the escape of unused methane from an engine’s combustion chamber in the exhaust of gas engines used for oil and gas drilling) as a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. To address this, a research team from UChicago Argonne, Argonne National Laboratory, Nexceris, and the University of Central Florida aims to develop a novel on-board reformation device by leveraging the latest catalyst technologies. The proposed device will harness engine exhaust heat and partially reform the incoming natural gas fuel stream to increase the hydrogen concentration in the fuel. This, in turn, can potentially decrease methane emissions by at least 50% while also improving the engine’s thermal efficiency.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $836,577
Total Value: $1,836,577


Polar Bear, Innovative Capture of Storage Tank Vapors The University of North Dakota (Grand Forks, North Dakota) intends to test a novel technological approach to reduce or eliminate methane emissions from storage tanks. A prototype will be built and tested under dynamic conditions. The objective is to eliminate methane emissions from flaring and venting fugitive emissions associated with pressure control of the storage tank headspace. Although applicable to larger facilities, the Polar Bear aims to provide a cost-effective solution for the high number of small producing facilities distributed across the country that, in the aggregate, contribute to a significant volume of emissions. The sub-recipient of this project, Bakken Production Optimization Program, will provide $250,000 of in-kind labor and services.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $250,000
Total Value: $1,250,000


Intelligent, Universal, Low-Cost Emissions Reduction Retrofit Kit for Industrial Engines – The University of Oklahoma (Norman, Oklahoma) plans to develop an intelligent, remotely controlled, low-cost emissions reduction retrofit kit for industrial engines used mainly in the upstream and midstream of the oil and gas industry. The kit consists of advanced sensing technologies, advanced machine learning algorithms to measure and predict different operating parameters, and a cloud-connected automation system for remote monitoring. The retrofit kit output parameters and predictions will be used for optimal control of an engine’s combustion process. A more than 70% methane emissions reduction and a 10% fuel consumption reduction have been previously observed in the lab and during field tests by optimally managing the combustion processes.

DOE Funding: $999,440
Non-DOE Funding: $333,191
Total Value: $1,332,631



A Regional-Scale Showcase of Hybrid Methane Sensing Networks in the Anadarko Basin – The University of Oklahoma (Norman, Oklahoma) aims to develop, deploy, and demonstrate a scalable, integrated, surface sensor network system that measures and monitors methane concentration and leak plumes in a large region over the Anadarko Basin. By integrating state-of-the-art sensor technologies with advanced emission modeling methods, the integrated network system may offer a turnkey solution for regional-scale monitoring of methane emissions in real time. The project’s specific objectives are to: (1) create a distributed sensor network of basin-scale coverage; (2) develop autonomous-capable mobile sensing tools using an electric vehicle and unmanned robot; (3) quantify and identify emission sources using advanced modeling methods; and (4) establish an online emission visualization dashboard allowing stakeholders to take quick mitigation actions.

DOE Funding: $3,999,987
Non-DOE Funding: $4,494,965
Total Value: $8,494,952


Surface-Based Methane Monitoring and Measurement Network Pilot Demonstration: Project Astra Phase II – The University of Texas at Austin (Austin, Texas), with partners Chevron, Environmental Defense Fund, ExxonMobil, GTI, Microsoft, and Pioneer Natural Resources, plans to expand, improve, and document an existing network that is testing the capabilities of continuous monitoring of methane emissions from oil and gas production sites in the Permian Basin. The existing network, known as Project Astra, is continuously monitoring methane emissions sources and is part of a rapid-response approach for identifying and measuring emission events while demonstrating advanced data analytics. Three operators and approximately 50 well pads are in the current network, representing a range of facility types. The project will extend the Project Astra network to a basin-wide platform and advance detection and quantification capabilities of sensing technologies.

DOE Funding: $4,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $4,000,000
Total Value: $8,000,000



Site-Air-Basin Emissions Reconciliation Colorado State University (Fort Collins, Colorado) aims to demonstrate that high-frequency sampling can be used to create inventory emissions estimates that accurately represent emissions in a basin. Researchers will also demonstrate that their methods can be replicated in other basins. While method development will focus on the Denver-Julesburg Basin, the project team plans to add a smaller project in the Upper Green River Basin in Wyoming as a demonstration that the methods developed in the Denver-Julesburg Basin will be applicable elsewhere. Results will provide the methodological underpinning required by current and contemplated certified gas programs and key field processes required for any of the integrated methane monitoring platforms that may be developed.

DOE Funding: $2,999,999
Non-DOE Funding: $762,370
Total Value: $3,762,369


Detailed Measurement Informed Methane Emission Inventory of the Haynesville Shale BasinGTI Energy (Des Plaines, Illinois) plans to estimate methane emissions for the Haynesville Basin and implement Veritas measurement and reconciliation protocols. The team will then compare the estimate with other oil- and gas-producing basins and evaluate the applicability and replicability of the project methodology and measurement strategy to other basins. This project will address and reconcile variations in methane emission estimates between the bottom-up estimates and top-down measurements at the basin scale, which could result in a more accurate methane emissions inventory that could help regulators, operators, researchers and technology vendors produce more targeted strategies to mitigate methane emissions along the natural gas supply chain.

DOE Funding: $2,999,892
Non-DOE Funding: $750,000
Total Value: $3,749,892


Developing Methane Emissions Inventories by Fusing Airborne, Satellite and Modeled Assessments Kairos Aerospace Inc. (Sunnyvale, California) plans to conduct a campaign to quantify methane emissions across the Anadarko and the Haynesville basins, which are significant oil- and gas-producing regions. The effort, undertaken in collaboration with Stanford University, MiQ, and GHGSat, will use cutting-edge technology to conduct airborne emissions surveys across each region, track super-emitters using satellites, measure trends through time, and leverage state-of-the-art emissions simulation models. The project will develop among the first full-basin, full-spectrum estimates of methane emissions, from the smallest to the largest sources. The initiative will provide critical insights that can be directly and immediately applied to methane emission mitigation strategies specific to these basins while developing approaches that can be applied elsewhere.

DOE Funding: $2,998,766
Non-DOE Funding: $3,148,567
Total Value: $6,147,333


Comprehensive Top-Down and Bottom-Up Estimation of Annual Basin-Wide Methane Emissions from the San Joaquin Valley and Denver Oil and Gas Basins Using a Multi-Tiered Measurement and Analysis Framework Sonoma Technology Inc. (Petaluma, California) intends to conduct a comprehensive, multi-tiered top-down and bottom-up estimation of annual basin-wide methane emissions for the San Joaquin Valley and Denver oil and gas basins using a multi-tiered measurement and analysis system. The project will use tools that include TROPOMI satellite data analysis, ground-based monitoring, ground-level mobile flux measurement using the FluxSense mobile platform, and the GHGSat satellite methane super-emitter survey, as well as extensive inverse modeling with TROPOMI and ground network data. The project may provide guidance on deployment strategies for different measurement systems for comprehensive assessments of methane emissions in other regions.

DOE Funding: $2,999,863
Non-DOE Funding: $783,607
Total Value: $3,783,470


The Marcellus Methane Monitoring Project: Multi-scale Measurement and Reconciliation of Methane Emissions in the Marcellus Shale Basin University of Texas at Austin (Austin, Texas) plans to develop and demonstrate a comprehensive, multi-scale, facility-level methane emissions measurement and reconciliation protocol within the Marcellus Shale Basin. The work will build on the project team’s recent demonstration of improving inventory estimates in upstream production facilities using multi-scale and continuous methane emissions measurements. The work aims to combine field surveys using continuous measurement systems, develop modeling and emissions reconciliation tools, and create a roadmap for updating national inventories and improving emissions factors. The project seeks to improve estimates of methane emissions from oil and gas operations across the Marcellus Shale Basin, including detailed characterization of intermittent emission events and a demonstration of new technologies to rapidly detect and mitigate intermittent super-emitters.

DOE Funding: $2,999,999
Non-DOE Funding: $749,999
Total Value: $3,749,998



Integrated System for Methane Emissions Monitoring, Mapping, and Quantification ABB Inc. (Cary, North Carolina) plans to create a comprehensive engineering, design, deployment, and operating plan for an integrated system for continuous methane emissions monitoring, mapping, localization and quantification across the entire natural gas supply chain and infrastructure. If successful, the system will enable rapid identification, localization, and characterization of super-emitters, intermittent sources, and persistent smaller emission sources. Data sources will include both novel and traditional sensor technologies that monitor emissions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The data sources will feed aggregators that integrate, ingest, and transmit data streams securely to a mission-designed centralized cloud information center that serves as the computational facility for data analyses, display, and dissemination to stakeholders with access.

DOE Funding: $817,700
Non-DOE Funding: $204,425
Total Value: $1,022,125


Integrated Methane Monitoring Platform Design GTI Energy (Des Plaines, Illinois) plans to develop a process for considering, integrating, and evaluating methane emissions measurements to better understand baseline methane emissions data and ultimately provide data-driven support to implement the most efficient, cost-effective emissions mitigation activities. GTI will coordinate and lead a technical advisory panel of methane emissions measurement experts, representatives of communities negatively impacted by greenhouse gas emissions, and gas supply operators to gather data and design a multi-scale integrated methane monitoring platform. GTI will apply industry best practices to create a set of transparent and auditable project documentation and collateral throughout each phase of project execution.

DOE Funding: $999,984
Non-DOE Funding: $250,000
Total Value: $1,249,984


Design and Development of an Integrated Methane Emissions Monitoring Platform Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Richland, Washington) will develop a detailed engineering, design, deployment, and operating plan for an integrated methane monitoring platform (IMMP) that will aggregate and analyze data from a variety of sources. These sources will include environmental monitoring (e.g., wind data) and information and data from methane monitoring technologies deployed at different scales, from stationary point sensors to satellites. The platform will be engineered to allow users to develop and add applications that enable data analysis capabilities for monitoring, alerting, and localizing methane emissions. The IMMP developed in this project will serve as a blueprint for deployment on a variety of platforms. The IMMP will include functions for data collection and curation, access, transmission, retention, and reporting.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $250,000
Total Value: $1,250,000


Integrated Methane Monitoring Platform Extension (IMMPE) Piedmont Natural Gas Company-Duke Energy (Charlotte, North Carolina) intends to leverage transdisciplinary expertise from academia, natural gas operations, digital, and advanced cloud computing technologies as well as data science to deploy, measure, and analyze methane emissions data. The IMMPE project will allow Duke Energy to close the gap in establishing a methane emissions baseline with direct measurement. The project team will evaluate and select technology to address assets and quantification that have not yet been explored. Upon completion, the IMMPE will offer a standardized framework that would allow others to leverage the approach and extend to upstream components, including midstream transmission and storage and upstream production and gathering. The project supports the goal of creating an industry-wide direct methane measurement standard for quantifying methane emissions through empirical means.

DOE Funding: $999,751
Non-DOE Funding: $275,000
Total Value: $1,274,751


Designing an Integrated Methane Monitoring Platform Comprising Satellites, Aircraft, Near-surface Drones, Ground-level Mobile Platforms and Fenceline Stationary Networks for Regional and Facility-level Emissions Monitoring – Sonoma Technology Inc. (Petaluma, California) aims to develop an integrated methane monitoring platform design plan comprised of satellites, aircraft, near-surface drones, ground-level mobile platforms, and fenceline stationary networks for regional and facility-level emissions monitoring. The plan will be developed by evaluating the literature on currently available methane monitoring systems; surveying oil and gas sector stakeholders and practitioners to document operational requirements and best practices in methane monitoring; using bottom-up, top-down and bridge technologies in a real-world application; and summarizing data management and assessment practices for a comprehensive integrated methane monitoring platform.

DOE Funding: $999,801
Non-DOE Funding: $259,250
Total Value: $1,259,051


A Multi-Scale Methane Monitoring System for Enhancing Emission Detection, Quantification and Prediction The University of Oklahoma (Norman, Oklahoma) intends to create a comprehensive engineering, design, deployment, and operation plan to guide future technology implementation through sensing, modeling and data management/analysis processes. Such a system will enable a fully integrated, continuous methane monitoring and reporting platform that could accelerate actions toward a “leak-tight” natural gas production chain from facility-scale to continent-scale. The platform will also provide accurate assessment and prediction of methane distributions over the United States and enable rapid response to detected emissions.

DOE Funding: $856,329
Non-DOE Funding: $290,663
Total Value: $1,146,992


Methane Accounting Project: Multi-scale Methane Monitoring and Accounting Framework Across Oil and Gas Supply Chains The University of Texas at Austin (Austin, Texas) aims to develop a framework for long-term implementation of a multi-scale methane measurement and accounting platform across the U.S. oil and gas supply chain that includes three critical elements: multi-scale measurements, data management and analysis, and communications and policy impact. If successful, the project will result in an integrated methane emissions monitoring platform that can be adopted across oil and gas supply chains.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $250,000
Total Value: $1,250,000



Storage Tank Emissions Assessment and Quantification GTI Energy (Des Plaines, Illinois) aims to improve the accuracy of methane emissions estimates from upstream oil and gas storage tank batteries with enhanced physical surveys and independent measurements. To characterize tank emissions, GTI Energy will acquire data via direct measurement on-site, complemented by long-duration measurements, to understand how often conditions at the tank change, creating intermittent emissions. A traditional field campaign will collect operational data and measure emissions from tanks at an estimated 750 facilities nationwide. The field campaign will work with operators for facility access and to identify causes of emissions. A separate field effort will use noninvasive monitoring methods, primarily next-generation imaging technology, to monitor tanks for extended periods (one to three months for a single tank battery).

DOE Funding: $6,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $1,500,000
Total Value: $7,500,000


Storage Tank Emissions Assessments in the Marcellus to Acquire New Knowledge with Science West Virginia University (Morgantown, West Virginia) aims to improve the overall understanding of methane and other emissions from storage tanks at upstream and midstream oil and natural gas sites. Efforts will focus on the Appalachian Basin, which includes the Marcellus and Utica shale plays, along with conventional resources, transmission, midstream, and storage facilities. The multidisciplinary project team will include atmospheric measurement experts who will collaborate with industry partners. The team will examine many tanks in diverse operations to understand the root causes of leaks and generate a sound scientific and technological understanding of their variability and magnitude. Long-term monitoring with various levels of instrumentation are planned.

DOE Funding: $5,561,366
Non-DOE Funding: $1,415,923
Total Value: $6,977,289