In response to high-profile accidents in 2013-2014 involving movement of crude by rail , the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT/PHMSA), and Transport Canada, Transport of Dangerous Goods Directorate (TC/TDG) commissioned a research study by Sandia National Laboratories  (Sandia) to investigate the physical, chemical, and combustion properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called “tight oils,” like Bakken crude, that comprised the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the time.

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