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According to Argonne National Laboratory, most battery cells and battery packs in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021 were domestically produced. In terms of total energy capacity in gigawatt-hours (GWh), 57% of battery cells and 84% of battery packs were produced in the United States. The three largest foreign suppliers in cell production were Japan, South Korea, and Poland. Japan, Germany, and South Korea were the largest foreign suppliers of battery packs. While the majority of cells were produced in the United States, they may contain materials from other countries.

Manufacturing Location for Cells, Packs, and Vehicles for PEVs Sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021 (GWh)

Source: David Gohlke, Yan Zhou, Xinyi Wu, and Calista Courtney, Argonne National Laboratory, Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010–2021, ANL-22/71, 2022.