A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory compared the total cost of ownership for Class 8 long haul, Class 8 short haul, and Class 4 parcel delivery trucks for six different powertrain technologies:
- Diesel hybrid electric (HEV)
- Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV)
- Compressed natural gas (CNG)
- Battery electric (BEV)
- Fuel cell electric (FCEV).
Costs included purchase price, fuel, operating and maintenance, driver wages and benefits, insurance, tire replacements, permits, tolls, dwell time costs due to refueling/recharging and lost payload capacity costs from heavier advanced vehicle powertrains.
The findings show that BEV may be best for shorter ranges or when dwell time is less of a concern. FCEV may be better for longer ranges or when greater uptime is needed. These two truck types help provide a pathway to decarbonization.
Notes: Ultimate refers to a point in time when the ultimate targets are met for a given fuel type. MSRP refers to manufacturer’s suggested retail price. O&M refers to operating and maintenance costs.
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Total Cost of Ownership for Class 8 Tractors and Class 4 Parcel Delivery Trucks, September 2021.