By their nature, all fuels have some degree of danger associated with them. The safe use of any fuel focuses on preventing situations where the three combustion factors—ignition source (spark or heat), oxidant (air), and fuel—are present. With a thorough understanding of fuel properties, we can design fuel systems with appropriate engineering controls and establish guidelines to enable the safe handling and use of a fuel.
A number of hydrogen's properties make it safer to handle and use than the fuels commonly used today. For example, hydrogen is non-toxic. In addition, because hydrogen is much lighter than air, it dissipates rapidly when it is released, allowing for relatively rapid dispersal of the fuel in case of a leak.
Some of hydrogen's properties require additional engineering controls to enable its safe use. Specifically, hydrogen has a wide range of flammable concentrations in air and lower ignition energy than gasoline or natural gas, which means it can ignite more easily. Consequently, adequate ventilation and leak detection are important elements in the design of safe hydrogen systems. Because hydrogen burns with a nearly invisible flame, special flame detectors are required.
In addition, some metals can become brittle when exposed to hydrogen, so selecting appropriate materials is important to the design of safe hydrogen systems. In addition to designing safety features into hydrogen systems, training in safe hydrogen handling practices is a key element for ensuring the safe use of hydrogen. In addition, testing of hydrogen systems—tank leak tests, garage leak simulations, and hydrogen tank drop tests—shows that hydrogen can be produced, stored, and dispensed safely.
As more and more hydrogen demonstrations get underway, hydrogen's safety record can grow and build confidence that hydrogen can be as safe as the fuels in widespread use today.