DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell System Humidifiers and Air Compression Systems

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These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for transportation fuel cell system humidifiers and air compression systems. These targets have been developed with input from the U.S. DRIVE Partnership, which includes automotive and energy companies, and specifically the Fuel Cell Technical Team. The guideline component targets are developed to assist component developers in evaluating progress without testing full systems.

More information about targets can be found in the Fuel Cells section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan.

Technical Targets: Air Compression System for 80-kWe Transportation Fuel Cell Systems Operating on Direct Hydrogen

Characteristic Units 2015 Status 2020 Targets
Input powera at full flowb (with/without expander) kWe 11.0/17.3 8/14
Combined motor and motor controller efficiency at full flowb % 80 90
Compressor/expander efficiency at full flowb % 71/73 75/80
Input power at 25% flowc (with/without expander) kWe 2.3/3.3 1.0/2.0
Combined motor/motor controller efficiency at 25% flowc % 57 80
Compressor/expander efficiency at 25% flowc % 62/64 65/70
Input power at idled (with/without expander) We 600/765 200/200
Combined motor/motor controller efficiency at idled % 35 70
Compressor/expander efficiency at idled % 61/59 60/60
Durabilitye h 5,000
Number of start-up and shutdown cycles 250,000
Turndown ratio (max/min flow rate) 20 20
Noise at maximum flow dBA at 1 m 65
Transient time for 10%–90% of maximum flow s 1 1
System volumef L 15 15
System weightf kg 22 15
System costg $ 750h 500

a Electrical input power to motor controller when bench testing fully integrated system. Fully integrated system includes control system electronics, air filter, and any additional air flow that may be used for cooling.
b Compressor: 92 g/s flow rate, 2.5 bar (absolute) discharge pressure; 40°C, 25% RH inlet conditions. Expander: 88 g/s flow rate, 2.2 bar (absolute) inlet pressure, 70°C, 100% RH inlet conditions.
c Compressor: 23 g/s flow rate, minimum 1.5 bar (absolute) discharge pressure; 40°C, 25% RH inlet conditions. Expander: 23 g/s flow rate, 1.4 bar (absolute) inlet pressure, 70°C, 100% RH inlet conditions.
d Compressor: 4.6 g/s flow rate, minimum 1.2 bar (absolute) discharge pressure; 40°C, 25% RH inlet conditions. Expander: 4.6 g/s flow rate, < compressor discharge pressure, 70°C, 20% RH inlet conditions.
e Durability testing performed according to protocol in Table P.10.
f Weight and volume include the motor, motor controller.
g Cost target based on a manufacturing volume of 500,000 units per year.
h Includes cost of compressor, expander, and motor controller manufactured at a volume of 500,000 systems per year. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 15015, "Fuel Cell System Cost—2015."

Technical Targets: Cathode Humidification System and Humidifier Membrane for 80-kWe Transportation Fuel Cell Systems Operating on Direct Hydrogen

Characteristic Units 2015 Statusa 2020 Targets
Maximum operating temperature °C 110–125 >95
Maximum pressure differential between wet and dry sides kPa 75 75
Maximum pressure drop at full flow (each side) kPa <3 3.5
Water transfer at full flowb g s-1 7.4 at BOL, 5.5 after 5,000 h 5
Durabilityc h 5,000 5,000
Maximum air leakage at full flow % 0.5 0.5
Volume L 4.3 5
Weight kg 2.7 5
Humidifier membrane water transfer flux at full flowb g min-1 cm-2 >0.03 0.025
System costd $ 81e 100
Membrane costd $/m2 20e 10

a Gore final report DE-EE0000465, Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers, Feb. 2013.
b Dry air in: 3,000 SLPM dry gas flow, 183 kPa (absolute), 80°C, 0% RH. Wet air in: 2,600 SLPM dry gas flow, 160 kPa (absolute), 80°C, 85% RH.
c Durability testing performed according to protocol in Table P.11.
d Cost projected to high-volume production (500,000 80 kW systems per year).
e DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 15015, "Fuel Cell System Cost—2015."