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Sankey Diagram of Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing

The U.S. Manufacturing Sector Sankey diagram below shows the amount of total primary energy in the form of fuel, steam, and electricity from offsite sources that enter all the U.S. manufacturing plants. Onsite renewable electricity is also shown. A portion of this primary energy is lost in the offsite generation of steam and electricity, and the transmission to manufacturing facilities (e.g., electric grid losses). Further losses occur onsite when a large portion of the fuel is transformed into steam and electricity. The fuel, steam, and electricity from offsite and onsite sources are used by process and nonprocess manufacturing applications; a portion of steam is lost during distribution to end uses onsite.  Applied energy is the useful energy employed in direct end use at the plant.  It is determined by subtracting the offsite generation and transmission losses, onsite generation and distribution losses, and end use losses.

Below the diagram, click on thumbnails of the Onsite Generation, Process Energy and Nonprocess Energy diagrams to learn more about energy flow in manufacturing. These diagrams visually complement the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint analysis. Definitions of terms used in this Sankey diagram are at the bottom of this page.

Image of the Sankey diagram for the manufacturing sector

Data source: 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint

thumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for onsite generation in the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for process energy in the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for nonprocess energy in the manufacturing sector

Terminology

Applied Energy: Amount of total primary energy employed in direct end use.

Energy Losses: The sum of offsite electricity and steam generation and transmission losses, onsite generation and distribution losses, and direct end use losses.

Onsite Renewable Electricity Generation: Electricity generated onsite from renewable sources other than biomass (e.g., solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal).

Process Energy: Energy directly applied in converting raw material into manufactured product. MECS-specified categories of process energy include process heating, process cooling and refrigeration, machine drive, electrochemical processes, and other process uses.

Nonprocess Energy: Energy used for purposes other than converting raw material into manufactured product. MECS-specified categories of nonprocess energy include facility HVAC, facility lighting, onsite transportation, other facility support (e.g., cooking, water heating), and other nonprocess use.

Notes

  1. The data source for this Sankey Diagram is the 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint. The footprint analysis utilizes 2010 EIA Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data, with adjustments, to quantify steam generation, electricity generation, and incoming fuel; onsite steam and electricity generation; and end use of electricity and fuel. Steam end use is not provided by MECS but rather is dependent on analysis alone. 
  2. Energy values represent aggregate sector-wide data in TBtu/yr, rounded to nearest whole number
  3. Excludes feedstock energy (byproduct fuels from feedstock are included)
  4. Arrow and box heights are proportional to flow size except for small flows for visual convenience
  5. Energy loss does not equate to recoverable energy, as a portion of these losses are thermodynamically unrecoverable
  6. Offsite generation shown on net basis (purchases, sales, and transfers accounted for)