The Wind Program's activities in wind technologies in distributed applications—or distributed wind—address the performance and reliability challenges associated with smaller turbines by focusing on technology development, testing, certification, and manufacturing.
What is Distributed Wind?
The Wind Program defines distributed wind in terms of technology application, based on a wind plant's location relative to end-use and power distribution infrastructure, rather than size. The following wind system attributes are used by the Wind Program to characterize them as distributed:
- Proximity to End-Use: Wind turbines that are installed at or near the point of end-use for the purposes of meeting onsite energy demand or supporting the operation of the existing distribution grid.
- Point of Interconnection: Wind turbines that are connected on the customer side of the meter, directly to the distribution grid, or are off-grid in a remote location.
Distributed wind energy systems are commonly installed on, but are not limited to, residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial, and community sites, and can range in size from a 5 kilowatt turbine at a home to a multi-megawatt turbine at a manufacturing facility. Small wind turbine technology, which includes turbines that have a rated capacity of less than or equal to 100 kilowatts, is the primary technology type used in distributed wind energy applications and is the focus of the Wind Program's technology R&D efforts for distributed applications.
Learn more about distributed wind with OpenEI's Small Wind Guidebook, which includes FAQs, wind resource maps, and lists of financial incentives and contacts.
The Wind Program aims to maximize stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety and improve project performance while reducing installed cost in order to be competitive with retail electric rates and other forms of distributed generation. The Wind Program's goals fall under one or both of the following focus areas:
- Wind Technology Certification: Increase the number of small wind turbine designs certified to performance and safety standards from a 2010 baseline of zero to 40 by 2020.
- Cost of Energy: Reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy of wind turbine technology used in distributed applications to national average retail electricity rates by 2020.
Wind technology used in distributed applications is an important element of the U.S. wind and energy industries because:
- The United States is a world leader in the export of small wind turbines, representing significant opportunity to create jobs through growth of domestic and international markets
- Distributed wind does not require new transmission infrastructure and can take advantage of available capacity on local distribution grids
- Wind technology used in distributed applications has great potential to compete in residential and commercial retail electricity markets
- The social and economic benefits from distributed wind projects stay local
- Grid connected distributed wind energy systems configured for emergency power can provide electricity to the loads they serve during natural disasters.
Research Project Highlights
These are some of the key research project highlights from the program's distributed wind research.
Testing for Certification
The growth of the international small wind industry has seen a large number of new products enter the U.S. market without a framework for verifying manufacturers' claims about turbine performance, reliability, noise, and safety. In response, the Wind Program supported the development of technical standards that can now be used voluntarily to test small wind turbines to performance and safety criteria, and helped establish the Small Wind Certification Council, which provides accredited third party verification of test results in accordance with internationally adopted technical standards for testing. Four small wind turbine regional test centers have also been established with support from the Wind Program. The program views small wind turbine certification as a way to provide manufacturers with the parameters for communicating transparent and credible information to consumers, utilities, lenders, and policymakers about the safety, performance, and durability of small wind turbine. A unified list of certified wind turbines is maintained by the Clean Energy States Alliance.
Competitiveness Improvement Project
DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports a Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) to expand and revitalize U.S. leadership in domestic and international distributed wind markets by helping U.S. manufacturers lower the cost of energy from their turbines.
In 2013, the Wind Program named Maine’s Pika Energy and Oklahoma’s Bergey Windpower as awardees of the first round of CIP funding. Bergey's award helped the company identify component improvements that assisted in the optimization of their Excel 10 turbine, resulting in increased performance and reduced end user cost. Pika Energy used its award to develop an advanced blade manufacturing process that is helping reduce the cost of energy from its turbines and is bringing Pika closer to achieving industry certification– an important step in the commercialization process.
In July, 2014, the Wind Program announced awardees for the second round of the CIP, which is focused on prototype testing, system optimization, and certification testing.
- Pika Energy of Maine is scaling up their existing turbine components to roughly twice their size in order produce a turbine capable of producing more energy at a reduced end user cost, as well as upgrading their key nacelle components, including a high-performance alternator, shrouds, and brake technology. Pika is also implementing the use of an injection molding technique for blade manufacturing, designed with funding from the first round of CIP awards, in order to produce turbine blades that are lighter and stronger than traditional small wind turbine blades.
- Northern Power Systems of Vermont is developing and deploying an innovative wind turbine blade designed for low wind speed applications. They will also be modeling and testing an advanced variable speed stall control method that will help increase the amount of energy produced by their turbine.
- Endurance Windpower of Utah is testing a prototype of their expanded rotor that allows for a larger swept area, leading to a more efficient turbine. They expect their expanded rotor to reduce their turbines’ levelized cost of energy by 20%.
- Urban Green Energy of New York is testing their vertical axis wind turbine against the American Wind Energy Association’s (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard. The AWEA Standard was created by the small wind turbine industry, scientists, state officials, and consumers to provide consumers with realistic and comparable performance ratings for comparing the performance of competing products.