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February 19, 2019
A new approach collects light emitted by plasma due to interaction with an injected neutral deuterium beam and transmits the light to spectrometers, by tuning the spectrometers to the rest wavelength of a visible deuterium spectral line.
Not All Ions in Tokamaks Go with the Flow
Spectroscopic measurements reveal that main ions flow much faster than impurities at the edge of fusion-relevant plasmas.
February 17, 2019
Contour plot of a cross-section plane around the magnetic islands (depicted by dashed lines), showing the variation of the electrostatic potential associated with the magnetic island.
New Model Sheds Light on Key Physics of Magnetic Islands that Can Halt Fusion Reactions
Surprisingly, a magnetic island does not necessarily perturb the plasma current in a dangerous way and destroy fusion performance.
February 12, 2019
Adjacent computer-assisted design models of the Pinnacle Engines opposed-piston gasoline engine.
Pinnacle Engines Develops Efficient, Low-Emission Gasoline Engine Using Supercomputing
Researchers modeled design concepts for innovative, opposed-piston engine on Titan supercomputer.
February 11, 2019
X-ray beam induces photo-ejection of an electron from (left) hydrogen and (right) helium.
Measuring the Impossible: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Hydrogen and Helium
Two most abundant elements in the universe, hydrogen & helium, were previously thought to be impossible to measure by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
February 11, 2019
Researchers collected X-ray images from rock samples (left) showing the element distribution. The chemical maps (right) reveal fine-scale chemical and mineralogical variations that weren’t captured in previously published analyses.
Early “Fossils” Formed by Tectonics, not Life
The 3.7-billion-year-old structures were considered the first evidence for life on the planet; new evidence suggests differently.
February 11, 2019
A scanning electron microscope image of a single-crystal diamond cantilever. This tiny device allows scientists to exert control over a quantum system (μm = micrometers).
Taking Diamond Qubits for a Spin
Scientists use implanted silicon ions & electricity to increase the spin time of quantum bits, moving closer to the tech needed for quantum networks.
February 11, 2019
New pictures of Photosystem II show different ways the protein complex shifts and stretches as it splits water. This image shows the water-oxidizing complex in the last stable state before the water splits.
Atomic Snapshots of Photosynthesis
Scientists catch details with atomic resolution, potentially helping design systems to use sunlight and water to produce fuels.
February 1, 2019
Pictures of three natural organic matter fractions extracted from sediment show the fractions are water extractable (MQ-SPE), acid-soluble pyrophosphate extractable (PP-SPE), and acid-insoluble pyrophosphate extractable (PP >1 kD).
New Approach Gets Better View of Carbon Deeper Underground
Characterizing carbon stored in deeper sediments below soils is critical for understanding the stability and dynamics of Earth’s carbon pool.
February 1, 2019
Researchers studied molecular data on phages to discover how the viruses affect environmentally important bacteria in nature.
Viruses Must Overcome Challenges to Infect Bacteria in Nature
Molecular studies show phage-host interactions are more complicated than most laboratory studies suggest.
January 30, 2019
This event display shows the result of a muon neutrino candidate interacting inside the MicroBooNE detector at Fermilab. Cyan shows the energy deposited in electromagnetic shower-like topologies. Yellow shows energy deposited in other line-like topologies
MicroBooNE, Machine Learning, and Liquid Argon
The MicroBooNE experiment demonstrates the use of machine learning to interpret images made by a liquid-argon particle detector.
January 30, 2019
Neutrinos entering the MINERvA detector interact with the detector's atoms, generating new particles before fleeing the scene. The MINERvA experiment used a new investigative technique to better trace those fleeing neutrinos that kicked everything off.
CSI: Neutrinos Cast No Shadows
New crime scene investigation technique offers a hard look at the traces that particles leave before fleeing the scene.
January 30, 2019
The ArgoNeuT detector at Fermilab used liquid argon to detect mysterious particles called neutrinos.
ArgoNeuT Hits a Home Run with Measurements of Neutrinos in Liquid Argon
Scientists developed a method to better distinguish the tracks that particles leave behind in liquid argon.
January 22, 2019
Enhancing the electric field in a molecule can make it a better catalyst. Wrapping a gold-based catalyst (left, center) in a larger complex (blue) provides the catalyst with electric fields. The fields help the catalyst break key bonds (right, arrows).
Optimizing Electric Fields Yields Better Catalysts
A careful consideration of electric fields could lead to faster industrial processes that use less energy and release less waste.
January 21, 2019
Scientists have devised a spectroscopy method—based on soft X-ray second-harmonic generation—that probes buried graphene layers inside graphite.
New Probe for the Secrets of Complex Interfaces
Element-selective method reveals interfacial properties of materials used for water purification, catalysis, energy conversion, and more.
January 20, 2019
An international team tracked the genomic composition of microbes in thawing permafrost to determine which had the greatest impact on releases of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere.
Uncovering the Microbial Food Web in Thawing Permafrost
Recovery of more than 1500 microbial genomes shines light on how carbon is metabolized as permafrost thaws.
January 14, 2019
Shallow cumulus clouds are big players in regulating the planet’s temperature. A new system gives researchers a 3-D view of these clouds and will help them test ideas about how such clouds act.
Observing Clouds in Four Dimensions
Six cameras are revolutionizing observations of shallow cumulus clouds.
January 11, 2019
An international research team peered deep into the atomic-level workings of water vapor on a nickel-chromium alloy to provide new insights that could help prevent metal corrosion.
Peering into the Mist: How Water Vapor Changes Metal at the Atomic Level
New insights into molecular-level processes could help prevent corrosion and improve catalytic conversion.
January 11, 2019
An international team tracked the genomic composition of microbes (purple and green) in thawing permafrost to determine which had the most impact on releases of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere.
Microbial Types May Prove Key to Gas Releases from Thawing Permafrost
Scientists discover key types of microbes that degrade organic matter and release carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere.
December 26, 2018
More Designer Peptides, More Possibilities
More Designer Peptides, More Possibilities
Scientists from the University of Washington, Stanford University, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) created a computational
December 23, 2018
Deep Learning for Electron Microscopy
Deep Learning for Electron Microscopy
MENNDL, an artificial intelligence system, automatically designed an optimal deep learning network to extract structural information from raw
December 18, 2018
Small Particles Play Large Role in Tropical Thunderstorms
Small Particles Play Large Role in Tropical Thunderstorms
The biggest challenge in unraveling the effect of aerosols on clouds and climate is isolating their effects from changes due to other environmental
December 18, 2018
Drought Stress Changes Microbes Living at Sorghum’s Roots
Drought Stress Changes Microbes Living at Sorghum’s Roots
Drought stress can greatly reduce the health and productivity of plants, including candidate bioenergy feedstocks such as sorghum. Microbial
December 11, 2018
During Droughts, Bacteria Help Sorghum Continue Growing
During Droughts, Bacteria Help Sorghum Continue Growing
Researchers from the University of California at Berkeley, University of California at Davis, Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department
December 6, 2018
The Biermann Battery Effect: Spontaneous Generation of Magnetic Fields and Their Severing
The Biermann Battery Effect: Spontaneous Generation of Magnetic Fields and Their Severing
Magnetic reconnection occurs when oppositely directed magnetic fields are forced together in plasmas, which are excellent electrical conductors. A
December 6, 2018
Subtlety and the Selective Art of Separating Lanthanides
Subtlety and the Selective Art of Separating Lanthanides
Fundamental understanding of selective recognition and separation of lanthanide ions by chelating agents is of crucial importance for advancing