United States Fuel Resiliency: US Fuels Supply Infrastructure
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Report: United States Fuel Resiliency – U.S. Fuels Supply Infrastructure Study: (1) Infrastructure Characterization; (II) Vulnerability to Natural and Physical Threats; and (III) Vulnerability and Resilience This report assesses the U.S. fuels supply transportation, storage, and distribution (TS&D) infrastructure, its vulnerabilities (natural and physical threats), and its resiliency. The analysis employs a region-by-region perspective of U.S. fuels supply infrastructure, mirroring the Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) system that underpins liquid fuels commerce. The report also assesses the TS&D networks for crude oil and condensates, petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, natural gas liquids, biofuels, and natural gas. Key findings include:
- U.S. refining capacity is concentrated within the top 10 refining companies, which own over one-third of the refineries and 70% of the operable capacity;
- Hurricanes pose the greatest natural threat to TS&D infrastructure, with widespread power outages that shut down coastal and inland facilities and operations considered the most likely of potential impacts;
- Increases in domestic oil production, primarily from the Bakken and Eagle Ford shale plays, coupled with increased supplies of Canadian heavy synthetic crude, have prompted the reversal and repurposing of pipelines across the TS&D network;
- Shifts in the U.S. midstream network have reduced U.S. dependence on imported oil but have created challenges to effectively distributing oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR); and
- Options for government to encourage expanded private-sector investment in supply replacement capabilities, infrastructure hardening, and preparedness initiatives as well as prospective governmental actions including legislative and regulatory measures, as appropriate.
Each report listed below was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed therein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.