This livestream recording features remarks given by FEMP Director Mary Sotos, Under Secretary for Infrastructure David Crane, Federal Chief Sustainability Officer Andrew Mayock, former FEMP directors, and more at FEMP 50, a two-day celebration of 50 years of federal energy management in Washington, D.C.
>>Mary Sotos: Pleased to have you here in person as well as those who are tuned in to the live stream. FEMP is well known to all of you, but until you got an invitation to this event, you may not have known that FEMP was celebrating 50 years, or even that FEMP has been around for 50 years. So it's this is an important milestone. And I wanted to take this opportunity today as part of coming together to do three things. One is to welcome new folks to this very special community of energy management. The second is to share some trainings, offering, some new approaches, things that FEMP is rolling out that we want you as agency partners in particular to be aware of. And then the third is just to really celebrate our history and you'll hear about so many impressive accomplishments that FEMP and this community has achieved over the years. But I want to also take it as an opportunity to refocus on what's ahead and the big opportunities and challenges that we can meet as a group.
So first of all, welcome to this very special community. Some of you are long standing partners and some of you have been here from the very beginning. So maybe can we just take a moment here in the room? If you were here at the very beginning in some of the first iterations of FEMP, would you mind standing up? Do we have anyone who was here? Shelly, you count. Some of the first, first moments. First, yeah. First 25 maybe. Do we have? First 25. I'm very pleased to be joined with such, by a group that has such history, and we also have our full FEMP team here, which in a remote setting it's rare that we all come together so please say hi to some of our new FEMP folks. I would say about half of the FEMP team has joined in the last two years so a lot of new faces who should meet some of the old faces. And in particular, you'll hear today from Chris Tremper, who is our in-house data wizard historian. He'll walk us through some of the history of FEMP and the trends throughout the years. And really, it's hard to imagine FEMP without Chris. So we're honored to have him share that part of the story.
We have many people here in the room, senior members from over a dozen agencies, leaders from the White House, members from local utilities industry associations, ESCOs. And I'm also honored that we have several of the former FEMP directors here today, who within the first week or so of me starting this role reached out generously to share their time, their expertise, their stories, which really to me reflects a shared commitment and passion for this work. And that's what I think is the true testament to this community is that shared passion and commitment and that community of practice doesn't happen automatically. FEMP has been there for 50 years to help convene, build bridges, share ideas, identify common problems across the federal government, and foster pathways to access the expertise and financing that industry can bring to bear. And we need those solutions and this community more than ever.
You're probably feeling this urgency within your agencies or your business. We have a climate crisis that poses serious threats to our operations. We have growing energy bills, energy instability, under resourced facilities, turnover in staff, unfilled vacancies, all while trying to achieve ambitious policies and invest historic levels of funding. This all boils down to how do we execute at this moment in time. For 50 years, FEMP has helped agencies execute on their energy goals while advancing their agency mission. And you may know about some of the ways that FEMP has helped achieve this, but we're gathered here today to help empower you in agencies to access and share with your teams the full suite of resources that FEMP can offer.
So I'll start just briefly training. Later this morning, I encourage you and your teams to attend an overview of the FEMP tools and resources and tune in to tomorrow's full day of virtual training, where we have curated a tight list of some of the most important issues you and your team may be wrestling with, decarbonization, electrification, purchasing carbon pollution free electricity, leveraging performance contracting and utility engagement to meet these goals, a preview of some of the newest technologies and cybersecurity approaches to connected buildings, how to prepare your facilities resilience for a changing climate. I could go on and on about our training. After all, last year we provided over 50,000 hours of training to the federal government on site, off site, as well as that energy exchange.
But what makes our training powerful are the smart, technically rigorous tools, analysis and approaches that we've codeveloped with some of the world's top experts in building science and technology. So whenever you've had a technology or procurement or regulatory question through the years that's posed, has been a barrier, or has been complex FEMP has helped untangle the issue and come up with a solution. And I could go through our list of tools, but you'll hear more about that this morning. We all know the best training and the plans are incomplete if we don't have funding to implement the changes that our facilities and our fleets really need and this is where FEMP's history of forging a path for performance contracting has been so critical. FEMP has created the building blocks that any agency needs for a successful performance contract. The early upfront help, the M&V throughout the life of the contract and we've worked with utilities over the years to raise up the pathway of utility energy service contracts. And increasingly almost every one of your goals as an agency will run through the grid and run through your utility.
FEMP has also created other approaches, simplified contracts like Enable for smaller projects and we are close to reaching the milestone of 1000 buildings that have successfully used that approach. We have a number of different goals that are going to be pushing us further in performance contracting and we are at a critical juncture to make that happen. One of those critical ingredients right now is that extra bit of funding to help a project cover the measures that couldn't otherwise be covered in a performance contract or to just get started. And this is where again, the history of FEMP coming up with an affect grant is is such a tremendous contribution to agencies ability to execute. We've run seven cycles of this program. We've recently awarded $28 million to 19 different energy projects that are enhancing resilience and reducing emissions. And we look forward to announcing the first rounds of awards of our $250 million affect grant later this year, which will represent a substantial investment in advancing net zero facilities.
So as you can see, we have some very significant milestones ahead of us this year. And as we take a moment to reflect on the past 50 years, I want FEMP to enter into its highest impact chapter yet. I think we have the right people, the policies, and the funding to make that happen. And if we look back on the 50 years, what were the key ingredients to make this kind of success possible? It's the same key elements. FEMP and the federal government succeed when our efforts are relationship driven, data informed, when we tell stories that inspire action and when we are deeply creative and committed within constraints, whether those be planetary boundaries or government procurement rules. So we have a very fun program this morning. You'll get to hear a lot more about the history of FEMP. And I just want to thank you again for being here and a special thanks to our DOE leadership for pushing us to deploy new infrastructure for what the next 50 years of mission and climate will bring. So with that, I will turn it over to some recorded remarks from Undersecretary David Crane.
>>David Crane: Hello and happy FEMP 50 to my colleagues from the DOE and from across the federal government. I'm David Crane, the undersecretary for infrastructure at the Department of Energy. Although I can't be in DC with you today, I'm excited to mark this major milestone birthday and welcome you to two important days of celebration and collaboration. What a half century it's been for FEMP and for our energy and sustainability partners across the federal government. I hope you are proud of the work you've done and excited for the challenges ahead. I want to share just one example of many of how FEMP has successfully met its mission and enabled federal agencies to meet their own energy goals. This example combines market engagement, innovation, and partnership across the government to move the needle for clean energy everywhere taking a technology from our research idea all the way to widespread deployment, all while creating a positive impact on our environment.
That's the story of the LED light bulb. It started with the L Prize, the first government sponsored technology competition that kicked off in 2008. The prize sought LED replacements for the common 60 Watt light bulb. When Phillips North America won the prize in 2011 with their LED technology, it helped catalyze market competition and push the whole industry forward. Since then, our friends at FEMP have helped empower agencies to lead large scale implementation efforts at federal office buildings and sites like the United States Army Reserve 9th Mission Support Command in Guam, who received recognition for high efficiency lighting adoption both indoors and outdoors on their base. Their interior efforts alone are cutting their energy use by 62 percent which saves them more than $50,000.00 a year in energy costs.
These kinds of benefits are seen across our agencies who have taken part in efforts led by FEMP and as the nation's largest energy consumer the immediate impact is large and the ripple effect is huge. It's through these efforts, led by FEMP and the public sector, amongst others that are driving our potential to reduce US lighting energy use by 75 percent by 2035. Overall FEMP's partnership, avenues, resources and tools have been critical in driving the adoption of efficient lighting technologies and saving our agencies and the American taxpayer a lot of money. I like that story because it underscores that the federal government is leading by example when it comes to meeting our energy goals.
Here's what I meant by our bright future. We're building on decades of research and innovation and entering a new modern era of the American energy economy. The office I have the honor of leading, the Department of Energy's Office of Infrastructure, was established in 2022 and we've become the department's demonstration and deployment arm. Our offices, FEMP included, are helping the United States catalyze solutions and foster a new clean, secure and resilient energy economy. Also, we can help our nation meet its collective goal of carbon free electricity domestically by 2035 and a net zero economy by 2050. That's why, through the infrastructure offices, we have initiated a series of vast collaborative efforts between public sector and private with states, local and tribal governments and federal agencies, with energy producers and large energy buyers, and with American consumers to help supercharge this transition to a clean energy future.
Thanks to your efforts at FEMP, we are now 50 year strong in DOE's efforts to lead by example. I have full faith that each and every one of you will carry on this proud tradition as we continue to advance our own energy sustainability and emission goals. There is a tremendous amount of expertise and knowledge in the room right now. I hope you can capitalize on your time together, learn from one another and foster these crucial partnerships and connections that help drive advancement and have a little fun along the way. Thanks for your time, your dedication and your light. I appreciate all the work you have done and continue to do onward.
>>Mary Sotos: Right. All right. Next, I am pleased to introduce the federal Chief Sustainability Officer in the Council on Environmental Quality, Andrew Mayock.
>>Andrew Mayock: Thank you, Mary. And good morning to everyone. It's great to be here for this 50th year celebration. On behalf of the White House, I want to thank DOE leadership and FEMP leadership present and past. I see Richard Kidd and so many others out there. And I want to thank all of the FEMP family sitting in the room and joining us virtually. It's great to be together and it's great to mark this moment. I wanted to say a few things about marking this moment. One, just I want to note about, say a note about celebrating this 50 year anniversary, two mark this present moment, and three, look forward to FEMP's next 50 years.
So in celebrating this current moment and marking it I just want to note what an important exercise is, it is, as Mary noted, so critical to take a look back, to take stock, to see all that's been accomplished over the years, and brought us to this moment. And mostly, I think, to really focus on all the impact that FEMP has had over these years, playing that essential role to helping federal agencies become more efficient, more sustainable, more cost effective, and now providing that very strong foundation for the road forward. I wanted to note too as we celebrate here, many companies or agencies would take this moment of 50 years to simply celebrate, enjoy the moment have a party. Not FEMP.
So we're here today and tomorrow, two days of getting stuff done, action focused delivery and that is true FEMP style which takes me to the second point of marking this immediate moment in the present and the urgency of this moment. As Mary noted, as Undersecretary Crane noted, it's not only FEMP's way, but it's the right approach for these urgent times to do what's not only celebrate today, but to lean in and lean in hard over the next couple days. And we find ourselves here in the middle of the Biden administration and we take a look back at the start and the president's first days in office through executive 14008. The president pushed us, mandated us to take a whole of government effort to use the power of the federal footprint to deliver and deliver in profound ways like Undersecretary Crane was just sharing. And then through executive order 14057, the president charged us to get to net zero operations for federal government no later than 2050, and most importantly, put us on a path for action in the 2020s, in this decade.
And so that is a very tall and necessary order. It comes at a time when we are experiencing all sorts of records as we look around domestically, globally record heat, record drought, record flooding. It couldn't be more present in our minds, the urgent work of the of the day that we're doing and no better institution to pull that all together than FEMP for this vast enterprise that is the federal government.
And so that takes us to the next 50 years and the third thing I wanted to focus on. Not only what does it look like as we move out in the 2020s, but what does it look at, what does it look like midcentury and beyond? And then the importance of FEMP's wide-ranging tools to deliver on that full decarbonization of the federal government in so many ways. And it's such the glue to making this this action happen and through providing technical assistance, through developing accredited training, through one of a kind of events like energy exchange, supporting the development of zero emission vehicles and fleet electrification, accelerating energy efficiency and decarbonization through performance contracting and not only taking affect from the program that it was and is under current appropriations, but super sizing that to meet this urgent moment through the bipartisan infrastructure law.
So FEMP brings so much, so many things to this challenge, so many things that's necessary for this broad, sprawling federal government to actually go deliver on those very serious goals. And FEMP brings most of all, the people, the people that built FEMP that are in this room today, the people that are the stewards of FEMP in this present moment and the people that will get us to where we want to go by 2050 and before. And so thank you for the past 50 years. Thank you for today and leaning in fully over the next couple of days and thank you in advance for all that's to come. Thanks.
>>Mary Sotos: Thank you, Andrew. Next, I'm pleased to introduce the Chief Sustainability Officer at the US General Services Administration, Kevin Kampschroer.
>>Kevin Kampschroer: Thank you. And I will give a shout out to my friends at CDC who reminded me because I tested positive ten days ago I need to be wearing this when I'm in the presence of others. So I am and you all should too. Just remember, it hasn't gone away. But it's through collaborative effects of the federal government working together that we were able to make such a huge dent in COVID. And it's through collaborative efforts led by FEMP and their colleagues across the government that we've been able to make 50 years of progress. And I'm able to say looking back at the information that we have on GSA that we're consuming half the energy today that we were 30 years ago. And that's due in large part to the work that we have been able to do as a customer and a collaborator and a partner with FEMP and I personally appreciate it. I remember in the Reagan administration being schooled by one of the new political appointees who came in and told me that all we needed to do to figure out this energy stuff was to look at the utility bills. And I was able to say because of the work that we've done with FEMP, oh, here, they all are. They're in a computer system. It's called a database and so on. It was flabbergasting to the person, but it isn't flabbergasting to those of us in the federal government. And just imagine that, 40 years of every single monthly utility bill from six different fuels that you can analyze and see what's been going on. That's the power of the partnership.
We worked together on developing deep energy retrofits and it really highlighted the ability of the Federal Energy Management Program to pull all kinds of people together, the labs, the scientists, the practitioners, the building managers and the people who are doing the energy savings performance contracts and tackle a difficult problem. And the difficult problem was we weren't getting enough out of energy contracts and the reason was everybody thought it was somebody else's problem to solve. And by putting everybody together we working together with FEMP, we're able to come up with deep energy retrofit handbook and we're doing it today. And we're on phase ten in GSA and one of those will be a great, great story to be telling my grandchildren I hope when I walk them by the Ronald Reagan building in Washington DC and say I was the first project manager on that building and it was a hog, but now it's not and it's all electric and it's contributing to the cleaning our entire society.
FEMP co-led the Interagency Sustainability Working Group from its very inception back in almost the era of President Clinton. The ISWG self-started and came up with the guiding principles for federal sustainable buildings that were eventually adopted and have been modified since then, and we are adhering to even today and show up in the excellent executive order that we are living with today that goes further than any executive order in the past and let us hope that it doesn't stop there. I appreciate the celebration part that both people mentioned both Mary and Andrew, both as a member of the jury and as an applicant and as a winner, and in these programs it's really important to highlight what people have done in a practical way, in a way that we can tell the stories about it.
And I remember particularly when I was trying to get something done in GSA and I was getting nowhere and every time it was like more data, more analysis, more stuff and I was going back and this was going on for seven or eight years. And a friend of mine who happened to be a professor at the Harvard Business School, said, “Kevin, they don't make decisions based on data. They make decisions based on stories. Come up with some good stories, and you'll sell yourself. Don't have any good stories, and all you got is numbers? Forget it. Nobody's going to listen to you because they're boring.” And so I learned. I learned that and I think that's what you see if you go to the FEMP website. And it shocks people at the Department of Energy, but I'm always referring people to the FEMP website because it is easy to navigate believe it or not. People who are in the agency don't believe that. But I'm in GSA and I know GSA site is not easy to navigate and government websites have all of this overhead, but the FEMP website has just vast amounts of data there.
And in my neighborhood we've had a couple of people from the labs come and they and they just basically put slide after slide to my neighborhood to try and get people to be a better energy consumers in my little neighborhood in Virginia. And they're fabulous and I don't know how we got them to come and talk to our neighborhood association, but they did. But I'm seeing all these slides, I think I know them. They're from the FEMP website. That's great. And it's really, it's really wonderful. And just one last little celebration, the Take Five training modules are fantastic. They're so good that we've shipped them out to all of our building managers, all of it, all of the contractors who work for us, thousands of people. Plus we've decided that it's so good that we developed an entire Take Five custodial set of training exercises within GSA based on the same model because there's nothing like a good idea that isn't worth stealing and replicating so. And last but not least, I'm really pleased that one of our employees in the Office of Federal High Performance Green Buildings is joining the FEMP early career professionals program. Another example of how you start young and you keep going and that's how we'll get to the next 50 years. Thank you.
>>Mary Sotos: Thank you. We are very honored next to have Chris Tremper coming up to share a little bit about the history, not only the history of FEMP, but the history of federal energy management over the years, both the data and the stories. And so as just a quick note, we're very grateful for Chris's dedication to this work and for keeping us honest and grounded in the actual impact that we can track and talk about. So with that, I'll turn it over to you, Chris.
>>Chris Tremper: Thanks Mary. Chris Tremper here, still here. It's been 36 years since I joined the office. I was a newlywed then. Now I'm a grandfather. That was 1987 during the Reagan administration. And so 36 years is 72 percent of FEMP's history although the FEMP office itself doesn't go all the way back then. It resided first at the Interior Department and in the executive office of the president. First 20 years of my career I worked for the private sector, so _____ contractors. These are small, minority owned, disadvantaged businesses, which was the practice at the time. I worked for two of these. And then the balance of my 15 years of I've been a federal employee. So here I am by default to present to you a history of Federal Energy Management aided by a paper archive that I absconded with when we got kicked out of our rental space up at Lafont Plaza and has been at my house until today when I am returning it to the office.
It includes annual reports that go back to 1974. Two huge binders. Remember binders? Of the FEMP Focus newsletter, which was a quarterly newsletter that would arrive in the mail four times a year. And I'm going to speak broadly about federal energy management because it's really all the agencies that have contributed to the successes of this. And FEMP is here, but we're just sort of a convening office and we keep track of what you're doing and all, of course, in addition to everything else that Mary said about the training and outreach so. Next slide. Oh no. First slide, please.
So doing little research discovered that the idea of federal energy management was born in June of 1973 on San Clemente Island when President Nixon issued a memo on energy conservation in the federal government. So this was the end of June 1973, which at the time was the end of the fiscal year. The fiscal year at that time used to begin July 1st. So what does he do? He asks all the heads of the departments and cabinet members to send to me in a month an accounting of all your energy use and a plan for reducing that. And you know, today we submit our annual reports, it takes three months to get them in. But he asked this data to be submitted to the newly formed Office of Energy Conservation that was at the Department of the Interior. He directed agencies to lower their AC and relax the dress code accordingly, reduce lighting in buildings, begin using fuel efficient automobiles, reduce business travel, and interestingly, look at labs and industrial facilities, particularly government owned contractor operated facilities as an opportunity to save energy. And he set a goal for the government to reduce its energy use by seven percent in the next year.
Goal was met. Through the reports of the agencies, they reported reducing the energy use from 19 fiscal year '73 to '74 by 24 percent and saved $725 million, which in today's dollars is $3 billion. They say the unit of the time was a million barrels of oil, so they saved 90 million barrels of oil. This metric was linked to the security issues of the time of the imported oil. And equivalent to 525 trillion source delivered BTU's, which was how the BTU's were measured at the time. They estimated what the energy inputs were at utilities to capture this. How did they achieve this? Well, there was an oil shock. I don't know if it was the Arab or oil embargo, but oil shock is the term I will use from October '73 to January of '74 and that probably had a lot to do. Also with a mild winter, we often forget how weather can affect these metrics. So next slide.
President Nixon issued an executive order to set up an executive office president at Federal Energy Office. It was staffed by the Treasury Department and also worked with the Interior Department. Then he signed the Federal Energy Administration Act, which actually pulled a lot of those functions from the interior to a separate, independent agency, the Federal Energy Administration. I've highlighted on this slide the involvement of the cost of living counsel which inflation was the concern at the time. And it links us to where we are today with our most recent infrastructure and efficiency bills of being linked to inflation reduction. Next slide.
Well, that was a tumultuous time for a President Nixon and so. But it was in August that he resigned and so by October, President Ford issued a memorandum and he recognized that 24 percent reduction that surpassed that 7 percent goal. And he set another goal for agencies to reduce their energy use by 15 percent versus 1973. As reported by the agencies to the Federal Energy Administration, a 23 percent reduction, little lower than the 24 from the previous. So it went up a little bit in '75, but that goal was surpassed as well. He also issued one of the first executive orders on federal energy management and it asked agencies to develop ten year plans for buildings, which is what most of my talk is going to talk about, buildings. We could talk about the vehicles and the fleet efforts. But when you look at the progress over the last ten years in terms of petroleum reduction and alternative fuel use, and then when you see the overall energy use of those fuels, which is only about nine percent, you'll see why I'm focused on buildings. Next slide.
Jimmy Carter, God bless the man. He's tougher than cooked owl. Still with us and I'm so happy to say. President Carter also issued an executive order. Of course, we all know him as being a champion of energy efficiency. 12003 it, he took the step of amending the previous president's executive order and introduced, for the first time the first energy use intensity goals for buildings of the BTU per square foot reduction goals. He actually had it set up for two types of buildings, federal owned buildings for a goal of 20 percent reduction from 1975 to 1985, and a separate goal for new buildings to reduce the even more 45 percent. There's a little disconnect in the logic there because new buildings should already be energy efficient, so why would you have… Long story short, that goal wasn't tracked. The tracking fell by the wayside. And so we ended up with just a total inventory of buildings.
So that 20 percent reduction goal from '75 to '85 at the time was being measured in terms of source energy, which for electricity includes an estimate of what the energy impacts are at the utility plant. Now we use a metric of site delivered BTU for electricity which just counts the heat content coming out of the plug. So using the method at the time they did not meet the goal of 20 percent. It was almost 17 percent reduction over that 10 year period. But if you looked at it in terms of the site delivered energy use, the goal was surpassed with almost 26 percent BTU per square foot goal. A lot of this has to do at the time of offices changing, more equipment coming into the office, so the focus on electricity increasing those buildings made that more an attractive metric for the energy managers, of course.
An important thing also that was in this executive order was to reduce petroleum based fuels and buildings that and that's your heating oil and your LPG propane. And if you see the next slide the goal was to reduce petroleum based fuels by 30 percent over that 10 year period, 3 percent a year. In fact, that goal was met with a 43 percent reduction. And then in terms of today's use of those fuels, 91 percent reduction in 2022 compared to the base year. This is pertinent to what we're trying to do now in our building performance standards of reducing scope one emissions in our buildings. You can see here it was done in terms of petroleum based fuels.
But of course it was natural gas that that that picked up the slack in this respect. Good in that the emissions from natural gas are a lot lower from petroleum, but you can see through time these kind of goals can be achieved. Usually though through outside variables and forces. Oh, also to note on this. There were also requirements of time to install dual fuel boilers in facilities so you could use a price signal to indicate whether you want to use heating oil or natural gas. And then the cost line on that, again, all of these charts that I have when I'm showing dollars I adjust those dollars to current year dollars because several years ago at an Edward Tufte seminar I was told that anytime you show dollars across years, it's a lie if you don't adjust the dollars for inflation. Of course you can also see the price volatility of petroleum fuels as well with the range of a cost on that.
Next we have the DOE Organization Act. This pulled a bunch of different agencies, Atomic Energy Commission, Federal Energy Administration, ERDA, which was sort of the research or Office of Science type of functions, and then the power marketing administrations which were part of interior naval reactors, petroleum reserves, which were also from the Navy, interesting, into one new agency. I mentioned this, there is a section of the Department of Energy Organization Act, Section 656 that actually gives the Energy Department convening authority at the assistant secretary level across the agencies to convene this group and settle issues that that come to them. One of the things they did settle in the early '90s was the site versus source performance metric for the goals. This group would be equivalent to today's CSOs, assistant secretary level folks getting together.
And then the task force that was later instituted in subsequent legislation reports directly to this policy making group. We haven't had a meeting of this group in many years, but I do remember some. I remember one in the Indian treating room at the old Executive Office building as it was called then, where Hazel Larry, Secretary of Energy at the time did attend. And I introduced myself to her and she had been with DOE from many years back before being appointed by Clinton. And I said I was with FEMP and she said, “Oh FEMP. I remember FEMP.” And she said, “I would have thought they would have accomplished their mission by now.” I still puzzled over what she meant by that, but if we had, it would have been nice if we weren't all here today. Next slide.
I want to talk a little bit about how we worked back in the '80s is for the benefit of our younger staff who who've always had the internet. So at the time when I started working in the office, you could smoke at your desk and many desks had ashtrays on it, and those ashtrays were full of butts. And many of my supervisors and bosses had booze in their desk drawer. They didn't drink during work, but it was just there, you know, to have. It wasn't quite like Mad Men, but it was definitely more than halfway there. And then before the internet research was all conducted on the phone or through the mails, or you would have to go to the library. I remember taking the metro up to the Arlington Library to look at the US code. There was no internet. But because of that, there was also services that were provided to the general public, help desks, call centers. We were co-located at the time with a service called the Conservation Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service Careers. And then FEMP itself had its own clearinghouse, the clearing house and energy financing partnerships, which I'll talk about a little bit later.
And we had a FEMP help desk, that Mark Ginsburg, who I'm so happy to see here today made sure that we continued and strengthened in the early '90s where because that's what you had to do. You had to call the 800 number to get information and then even as only in the mid-80s that faxes were introduced at the time agencies are reporting their data quarterly, not annually on these forms that you would have to fill in, you put in the numbers and then mail them into FEMP. They were just getting mailed to the contractors office. And then computers, you shared the desktop computers that were available at the time in the computer room. And at the time when I started working with the FEMP data, you would have to call up the landline, on a landline the computer, the mainframe computer in Germantown, fat finger your data is in, and if you wanted to print something, it would be printed out in this building. And then on our office in Arlington, we had a courier that went down twice a day to get printouts and actually just make the whole thing work. It was during this time that I helped move the data from that mainframe to the desktop. Some of the only other people that have computers the time where the secretaries and they had a word processors and that's what they look like at the time. And so if you had anything you needed typed up or you worked with your admin staff for that. Some of the programs, when we brought it to the desktop, we used the Fox Base, Fox Pro database, relational database management package. I don't know if anyone remembers Lotus 123. That was the first spreadsheet program. It actually made the IBM PCs the powerhouse at the time because of that, that program. And then of course Apple came by a little a little bit later. But also at the time WordPerfect was a word processing program with just this blue screen. It didn't – it wasn't what you see, what you get, which is a wizzy wig, which is the term of use at the time where you could actually see what your fonts look like or what your final documents look like. And then one of my first jobs for FEMP was putting together the newsletter.
And very early on, the Xerox Ventura publisher was the desktop publishing at the time. It was the first time I got to use a mouse and see what your documents were going to be. Just fascinating times. Miss some of these things, the big all the binders, which I, when we were first in Forestall and then moved up to Lanfont I abandoned all the old binders with all the data reports. They're in the computer system. Holy Joe's. Those are those yellow envelopes with the holes in them that would route documents around, routing slips, slips of paper with people's names on them. So if there's an interesting article that would go around it would circulate around the office. And even carbon paper made it – it was before my time, carbon paper but it still affected business processes in this building. And whenever you had a document that get approved, there was a chop chain that was printed on the secondary sheets of the carbon paper sheet that was brought into the age of computer. So that's pretty much gone now so. Thankfully or not, thankfully.
Ok, so moving on. I want to talk a bit, a little about the long incubation and evolution of a performance contracting. As I mentioned, FEMP has championed this from the early '80s with that clearing house. What was this clearing house? So folks could call the clearing house and what it kept was annotated bibliographies of contracting documents from across the states because it was the states that were doing this kind of financing at the time. They were the ones that were first using what was called shared energy savings contracts. Arizona, Michigan, New York, even Texas had something called the Loan, L-O-A-N Star program. So this clearing house gathered up all this information to share with the federal agencies to help them get their performance contracting method started.
So DoD was piloting this as early as 1984. The Bonneville Powerful Power Administration also was looking into shared energy savings and loan buy down programs as part of their integrated resource programs to not have to build new capacity. The Navy at DoD was really spearheading this method at the time. But there were some pretty steep barriers. One, the government did not have multiyear contracting authority to enter into multiyear contracts. Also there was a puzzlement over how to use funding from O&M cost to pay for capital projects. And then there's still the termination liabilities. What do we do if we terminate the contract for convenience? So that was resolved when President Reagan signed the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. They were still doing it back then in 1985, where they would just clump all the funding bills together. And that was the beginning of shared energy savings. It gave the government that multiyear fund contracting. First agency to award a shared energy savings project was the Postal Service in the end of 1987, at the San Diego mail, general mail facility. Then the Army, the Corpus Christi Army Depot in September of '88, Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, and then finally the Navy Hospital Long Beach was awarded about a year later. So we are underway with our performance contracts.
And it was the Energy Policy Act of 1992 that changed the name from shared to energy savings, even though postal service still continued to use that model under a different procurement authority and out of the – well I'll talk about that law a little bit later. Also, for utilities, what we needed there again was the authority to enter into sole source contracts with utilities to work with them to do efficiency measures in buildings. So next slide.
President Reagan signed the Federal Energy Management Improvement Act. This also established new goals, so we had formally been using this at 1975 base year. And so there's a period there about three years where we had no goals and the new goals were a modest 10 percent reduction between '85 and '95. It also reaffirmed the government's life cycle costing requirements, which is a key brick in FEMP's foundation, the use of least cost energy decisions to make your investment decisions by considering total costs adjusted to current year dollars. Also this law introduced the whole retention of savings. clause, which was an ill-fated, unimplementable. I see Cindy shaking your head about that requirement that asked agencies to put 50 percent back to the treasury. That was later removed or it didn't fix the problem. That's still a tough nut to crack. If anyone wants to try it, please do. And also required a secretary to conduct a survey, one, to focus on savings from peak demand measures, but another also to get a handle on what are all the cost effective ECM's out there.
1991 saw. Oh, go ahead. Next slide. 1991 we saw some constructive criticism from Congress and the NGO's. I don't know which I like better. The Congress's Office of Technology assessment with their passive aggressive question mark at the end or the alliance to save energy. Tell us how you really feel squandering taxpayers dollars and needlessly polluting the environment. Congress at the time was led by the Democrats. Much of the grief that these reports had was with the very, very low funding and efficiency investment at that time. From '87 to '89 it only averaged about $50 million a year, so not enough to really move the needle. Washington Post headline for the Alliance to Save Energy was government tagged as energy waster. Study says federal agencies have resumed inefficient habits. Do it's about this time that President George H W Bush signed executive Order 12759. He upped that 10 percent goal to 20 percent goal, 2 percent a year from '85 to '95. And it was also around this time that FEMP's budget, which was only $1 million a year at the time started to ramp up. $1 million every year back then is $2 million now so hardly is enough to accomplish anything and it's in the early '90s that has started to ramp up.
Next slide is the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Something that Congress seems to do a lot is they'll codify an executive order goal. In fact, that's what they did. They codified the Bush EO goal. Again, as I noted earlier, shared energy savings was rebranded ESPC and featured now a guaranteed savings. And that resulted in a subsequent rule making methods and procedures for ESPC, which is part of 10 CFR 436. Interesting and also part of that regulation Subpart A deals with the life cycle costing methodology. Subpart C is energy efficient product procurement. But still on the books is Subpart F for general operations plans, which focuses on plans to save the energy in your mobility and industrial processes and is actually pretty interesting if you're a geek on how to set up goals, what kind of output metrics to use, etcetera.
Also, this law asked agencies to install all life cycle cost effective measures in their facilities that had a payback of ten years or less, it had a deadline of by 2005 to complete that. We did not complete that. Federal Energy Efficiency Fund was authorized, $60 million in '94 and in '95 we were appropriated $8 million. But it was used for 37 projects. It leveraged about four, that $8 million leveraged about four million more dollars and saved in the long run, $54 million. So 4.5 return on investment, pretty good. This is what gives FEMP its authority that it's now using under affect to send grants to agencies so I'm glad we rediscovered that. Again, also utility incentive programs are mentioned. Oh and during this time federal energy and Water Management Award winners got cash money with their awards for two years. Alternative fuel vehicles are also mentioned mainly as part of this, but let's move on to the next slide.
And we get into President Clinton's era. His first executive order was 129O2, energy efficiency and water conservation, federal facilities. He set a new goal 30 percent in 1985 to 2005. So he he's reaching out beyond his term. Does that sound familiar? And our current president isn't the first to do that either. Always looking, looking forward to make an impact. He also established an industrial goal of 20 percent reduction from a different baseline 1999 to 2005, where agencies could use any other kind of output metric, BTU per output or hours of production or whatever. That sort of fell by the wayside as well. Showcase facilities were brought to the fore. Agencies were asked to develop showcase facilities and then they were promoted. I mentioned that this EO was announced by President Al Gore. He was introduced by the Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary at GSA's, one of their first national conference of Federal Energy environmental managers. That was the precursor to what was just called Energy Year, then became Gov Energy and now it's at the Energy Exchange. But ironically, instead of the president going out to where the conference was in Tysons Corner, they decided let's just bus the entire conference to where the vice president was. Irony.
Next. President Clinton's next executive order was part of a whole series of greening the government executive orders. And at the time, agreeing the government through efficient energy management, dealt with facilities. It introduced a greenhouse gas reduction goal for facilities, 30 percent reduction by 2010 versus 1999. It also established new BTU per square foot reduction goals, again reached this time reaching out to 2010 but not much of a steeper slope in performance, but reaching out in the years. I'd also established under renewable energy, the million solar roofs program. I don't know if anyone remembers that. So that, but that was a national goal to install a million solar roofs. The federal government goal was 2.000 roof solar roofs by the year 2000, that's easy to remember. And then 20,000 by his goal Horizon 2010. Well, we met it. There were 2,700 solar roofs by the year 2000, although oddly 98 percent of those were solar thermal, so only about 58 were PV. But of course I think PV works when it's larger than a roof better so. Also, this executive order recognized that there are some projects that are cost effective –
Five minutes? Oh my gosh. All right, let's move on. So this so for the first time I'm presenting President Clinton's greenhouse gas goals, and you can see we were on, they were on track to be met. But then something happened in 2001, and you can see where the energy use goes up. We have made continued progress on this so when we talk about what our emissions reductions and buildings were from 1990 to today, 50 percent reduction. So that's pretty good and versus it's been almost 40 percent since our new base year of 2008. Next slide.
And this is our overall federal energy use trends. What I want to point out here is how coal has been reduced by 95 percent since 1975. Electricity has gone up naturally as we become more electricity intensive. As I mentioned earlier, fuel oil down 91 percent, natural gas also down about 23 percent, on site renewable energy up infinity percent from 1975, a 126 percent from 2008. Next slide shows the emissions and mobility energy trends and again, you can see gasoline at the top there only about nine percent. Most of this fuel is jet fuel and shipped fuel, but you see that dip in the '90s, which I like to refer to as our long national nightmare of peace and prosperity. And then as was with –
Next slide. Oh gosh, We do need to cover the golden days of energy awareness, recognition and outreach. The FEMP focused long newsletter. I don't know if Scott Howard is in the room today, but his picture is up there, the energy champions and then the greening of the White House, which was a series of charrette to do energy efficiency in the White House. The national Christmas tree was partially powered by solar power during that period, and then we have these satellite broadcasts. This is how we did it at the time. You had people link satellite links where people got together and watch a presentation across the country. We had four of those. Next slide.
We have a new base year and that's because of after 9/11, 2001, we have a new agency, Department of Homeland Security, that which that which brought agencies from various other groups. They also include the Coast Guard, which had been under the Department of Transportation except in times of war, when it's under the Department of Defense. The thing I want to say about this is President Bush at the time saw the Energy Policy Act goal of 20 percent reduction for this period and said, well, I'm going to do one better make that 30 percent. And then at the end of his term, the energy Independence and Security Act codified that 30 percent reduction, which we still have today but have not yet met. Next slide.
And this shows you the various goals through the years and you know there were times when the goal was met. But as since 2015 was the last time the goal was in place. We did have goals under President Obama, which went out to the year 2025. He had a set a goal of a 25 percent reduction versus 2015 versus 2025. We reached about 13 percent reduction on that. Next slide. Oh, and then we have President Obama's first ever federal energy, or federal GHG reduction goals. So I tease President Obama here because at the time, everyone had forgotten about President Clinton's greenhouse cash reduction goals. So just caution everyone who wants to use those as first ever to make sure you do your research. This is our standard scope one and two emissions reductions. Most of the progress we see here is an electricity. Most of that progress and electricity is from grid decarbonization. 70 percent of that is from grid decarbonization, 22 percent is from lower electricity use, and an 8 percent is from purchase of RECs. One minute. Ok.
Long story short, it wasn't President Obama's green power plan that reduced it. It was basically the fracking revolution that released natural gas and caused utilities to move from coal to natural gas. That had a lot to do with the decarbonization of the grid at that time. And then so one other. Scope three, have to just mention we had we saw a 30% reduction in business air travel due to something that happened in Vegas in 2010 that didn't stay in Vegas and was revealed in 2012 and that resulted in business air travel declining precipitously. Ok.
Speaking of outside variables impacting performance. You could see how flat we are. This is not a perfect metric. It's the BTU per square foot goal is affected by mission tempo, weather changes in building inventory, security, new security requirements, fuel switching. Next slide, we have done some new analysis to see what has really been saved based on agency investment. And so what we do is we took the energy saved from life cycle cost effective investment that is not showing up in your reports because it's the counterfactual of what the impact of your investment is. So we looked at all that investment in the annual savings over the years and voila, you can see we have indeed met the 30 percent reduction goal when you consider what is the impact of the investments that have been made.
And then next slide, we have this metric in CTS too for those agencies that are reporting their annual footprint and their impact of their investments. And this is only over the last 12 years or so. Agencies like VA, which has increased, had had increased mission tempo is seeing a 20 percent energy savings due to there are more than $2 billion investment over that period, EPA 24, justice, commerce, TVA 20 percent, GSA with over a $1.5 billion investment of time at 19 percent savings. So this is really the metric that I think we need to focus on. And then next slide. The performance of the investment over the last two years has been disappointing, but a lot of that has to do with the impact of the president's performance challenge from the Obama years is still and then made continued momentum well into the Trump years as you can see. And Tim Unruh will tell you that that's how long it takes with these major programs to actually see the results of about four years.
Next slide looking at our investment overall that period from 2003 to 2022, that investment and you can see the spikes from the 2010 and '11, the recovery act funds at the time. That cumulative investment has paid for itself last year and will continue to accrue savings so that by the year 2030 we'll be seeing close to $60 billion saved from that $37 billion investment. And with that I'm over, but I hopefully not too much and I thank you all for your attention.
>> Mary Sotos: Thank you, Chris. I hope you are all taking notes. There will be a quiz. And I have two big takeaways from your trends over the years. One is it's really, there is a persistent issue with energy use in our facilities that is hard to tackle. However, I also took away that huge changes and savings are possible both in short spurts as well as long term investments. So that's given me some new focus of where to draw our focus today. So as we're rounding out to the end of our program here, I mentioned at the beginning that we're truly honored to have five of the former FEMP directors here in our presence. We have a short video compilation that a few of them have contributed to. After that video compilation, I will invite up in this order, so I'll just say it now in order of so Shelley Fiddler, Mr. Richard Kidd and Dr. Tim Unruh. So to share a few other remarks. But first we'll go video and then some live commentary.
>>Mark Ginsburg: Hi. I'm Mark Ginsburg.
>>Beth Shearer: I'm Beth Spear.
>>Rob Sandoli: I'm Rob Sandoli.
>>Mark Ginsburg: Thanks so much for celebrating 50 years of the Federal Energy Management program and its great success. So when I think about accomplishments, there are several that I'm proud of. That idea of building partnerships with the agencies, with labs, the private sector and here in DOE to be able to really harness all of the genius that was available to be able to deliver the services we knew had to be delivered.
>>Rob Sandoli: What am I most proud of during my brief time as director? Probably working with the FEMP team to help prepare Secretary Granholm to announce the affect awards. As many of you know, these grants to federal agencies help push certain sustainability projects over the line and help them get implemented. These projects will lower energy and water utility bills by $30 million annually and avoid 200,000 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions.
>>Beth Shearer: I became director of in 1999, and of course I thought my experiences with me. I added operations and maintenance to the FEMP model. That's how metering became so important. I also brought with me the utility energy service contracts that we have done in GSA and that became part of the FEMP program.
>>Rob Sandoli: And I have to say that I'm also really proud to have worked on the development of sustainability score cards. The score cards really focused the attention of senior leadership at agencies on sustainability requirements and a version of our early school card drafts is still in use today.
>>Beth Shearer: Another thing that I'm proud of is sustainability. With the whole FEMP team, we did strategic planning and the folks that identified sustainability as the next sort of frontier. And one day one of my clients came to me, another agency, and said we have to get into sustainability and I knew the time had come. So we started the sustainability working group.
>>Mark Ginsburg: There are two other accomplishments that I'm especially proud of. One was the greening of the White House, and the other was the development of LEED Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design. So on the first, the greening of the White House, after Secretary O'Leary called, we went to the White House and began to put together a design charette with the American Institute of Architects, the private sector, and a variety of experts who come in and work with the key White House players. The greening the White House then led to the greening the Pentagon, the greening, the Grand Canyon, Yellowstone and others as we began that whole initiative of setting the federal government in place to be a model, a good example for others to follow.
The development of LEED, Leadership in Energy and Environment Design was the product of a number of folks around the country who knew we needed a system to help measure performance of the building, and we launched it. We then began to realize that it was bigger than that and it was going to take more resources. And so it began to become a private sector initiative and a lot of partners and US Green Building Council was informed in part from the greening of the White House. Years later, the assistant Secretary of energy efficiency, David Garman, a skeptic of some of the programs we were doing later, said in public that LERF was probably the best investment that DOE ever made. Now that's a sense of pride for all of us.
>>Rob Sandoli: What continues to excite me most about FEMP is the ability to gather real data and highlight real results. For example, since 2008, FEMP has helped the federal government reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 30 percent. That's so impressive and that's backed by real data. And FEMP continues to lead in showing that all of the possible working with the White House on building performance standards, carbon pollution, free electricity and other sustainability approaches.
>>Mark Ginsburg: We send a powerful signal to industry that if they produce a highly efficient product, there would be a market for it, that we would lead in the federal example and that states and others would follow.
>>Rob Sandoli: All these efforts helped pushed forward the federal government sustainability agenda and with federal leadership these efforts paved the way for the rest of the country and economy to follow in improving energy efficiency, deploying renewables and reducing emissions.
>>Mark Ginsburg: As you look to the future, the job isn't done. Advanced technologies are exploding, energy savings potential abounds, and the imperative is more serious than ever.
>>Beth Shearer: And FEMP keeps evolving which I'm very proud of. Thank you.
>>Mark Ginsburg: Continue to make all of us alums proud of this great FEMP program.
>>Rob Sandoli: Congratulations on five decades of a job well done.
>>Shelley Fiddler: Wow. Hi guys. I'm Shelly Fiddler. And I have two minutes to tell you everything I feel and think about the Federal Energy Management Program. And it won't take me two minutes because what I want to say today is what I felt after having the honor of being the acting program manager during the Clinton administration. This program, in my opinion is the best, most cost effective, most effective program in the entire federal government. And it always has been, and it can remain so, and I'm after hearing what we have heard today and bless Chris Tremper for having a brain that I can't even imagine having to give us the history. There are people in this room, both old alum and new employees who can, have, and will change the world, and we can do it in the federal government, which is a difficult, gigantic place to work.
But the wonderful thing about FEMP is all the materials and people and ideas and training and data that we can bring to every single federal agency in the government. Some of them, like DOD, like GSA and others have the talent already in place to use these tools. Some agencies don't. So if I have a message to convey today, please understand the tools and the opportunities that you have been given and asked through this administration to use and to continue to innovate and be effective. Please understand the opportunities that you have. We all want to support you in getting even more done.
I wish I could thank everybody who I see out there and probably don't even see on the live stream, but I do want to say thank you to the people from agencies not DOE, particularly Kevin. Particularly Cindy Vallina, the private sector, which is represented here, the other agencies, the labs which have been incredibly helpful and powerful for multipliers. And to my predecessors, particularly Mark Ginsburg, who made this all happen. Thank you so, so much to those who came after me, Beth and Richard and Rob and Tim. Great, great work and we stand ready, Mary, to help all we can. And thank you so much for including us in this celebration. And let's make more things happen. Thanks.
>>Richard Kidd: Mary, thanks for the opportunity to let me speak here today to all of FEMP team. Thanks for all your hard work and pulling this together and for the kindness you've shown me and the other FEMP directors. So I came to FEMP in 2007 at the end of the Bush administration. I had come from the State Department and prior to that the United Nations and when I arrived people were scratching their head is about this guy, what's he doing at FEMP? He can barely plug in his desk lamp without help, right? So why is he in the energy position? And that's a fair question, a good question. I realized I had to learn a great deal. And so I started to bear down on this performance contracting thing. Sky put me in this small room and we had a couple of hours on everything's about energy performance contracting.
And since it was so complicated, I couldn't understand it, I asked what appeared to me to be the only question I could muster was, well, how much contract ceiling do we have left? And most surprisingly, no one knew. So the next day we circle back around and oh, by the way, we've just blown right through our contract ceiling. We weren't authorized to issue any more ESPC's. I learned the meaning of the Anti Deficiency Act and got to meet a range of very senior people here in the department quite quickly. So since then I've
had this special affinity for performance contracting, near and dear to my heart.
But we survived and the reason we survived was the skill set that I did bring was a sense of organizational design, behavior, culture, performance, and we really had to focus on what was the value added that FEMP could give to the federal government. So Chris has sort of traced the ups and downs of the legislation and the statute. But Framp has had its ups and downs, and frankly, at the end of the Bush administration, even at the beginning of the Obama administration, there were a number of folks in the government, political and career on the hill that said, FEMP's just not pulling its weight. And we need to get rid of it. So I was hired to actually make the case that FEMP mattered and to try to keep the organization in the game, after we've had years of significant budget cuts and staff cuts, so it was on this sort of value added proposition that I had to make the case to the department and others that that FEMP was worth something.
We did. We reorganized. We focused on our customers or I should say we refocus on our customers, the federal agencies. There was an item in there that Chris didn't cover, which is American Relief and Recovery Act. Originally, $0.00 were allocated to FEMP, so we fought hard. We got a very large increase by then standards for FEMP money. We went out, we did those Relief and Recovery Act projects. We were audited. We were the only entity in the Department of Energy with zero audit deficiencies thanks to Sean Herrera and her spreadsheet and others. So between that and then we went to the White House, and then the first ever presidential sustainability executive order. I get that right. FEMP team was assigned to write three of the seven operative paragraphs, which we did and we did, you know, the team worked really hard. So after a couple of years we approved the administration and to our supporters on the hill and o our clients in the federal government that in fact FEMP deserve to exist and we continue to where we are today.
We wouldn't have done that – Look, when I got there all these folks came out of the woodwork to rally around me and the team, the former directors that are here, everyone met with me, other great supporters in the industry and then of course the FEMP team or the FEMPSTERS. I guess I used to say that. I don't say that anymore. The FEMPSTERS really rallies to the cause and did just great work. So I leave the stage today with the shared impressions of the fellow, my fellow executive directors and program managers, you know, FEMP is just the best little agency in the federal government. So thanks everybody for all your work.
>>Tim Unruh: So once again I've got to follow Richard Kidd. So FEMP director in 2010. I'm this guy in Kansas and I take this job with this program called the Federal Energy Management Program and of course, everyone wants to know what is FEMP. It's the Federal Energy Management Program. They go, ok, what's that? And I think about it. I don't know if I really know. And so I started looking on the internet about this job I took and I read about this guy, Richard Kidd. It's like, oh, my god, this guy is so impressive. He's doing so much. He's from the State Department. He's got this global stuff. Oh, my god. I I've got big shoes to. I'm not kidding. You intimidated the day lights out of me. But now that I know you it doesn't happen anymore. But I didn't know what this program did and so I load my family up in a car and we drive across the country from Kansas to Washington, DC and I start working at this program called FEMP. And people still ask me, what does this program do? And I still don't think I knew. Sky would come in and tell me what he does and what his program did, this thing called ESPC. I knew that. I came from an ESPC company. And then Chris would come in and start going over this data. And then he starts telling me about source versus side energy and renewable energy and how it counts double in some cases and not in others. And all these weird rules is like, oh my god, what have I gotten myself into this? Is crazy house.
So things go on and I begin to learn a bit more. And so pretty soon I can start to cite all the things we've heard Mary talk about. We you know, talk about the training program and the ESPC program and the data program and we had efficient product program. We had this weird program, we had the we had to make a list of all these plug things that could come in that were less than one watt or something like that. All of these weird programs we had. And I got to thinking so maybe that's what it is we do. So I started using that when people say, what does FEMP do I start listing out well, there's FEMP with a T, FEMP training. There's FEMP with a D, FEMP data. And there's FEMP with an E, the ESPC piece and that seemed to get me by ok. And I was FEMP director from 2010, the end of the year 2010 till January 20th of 2017. I ran the FEMP program.
Toward the end of the program, somewhere in that last few months, I think I finally figured out what FEMP does, and I have to say, FEMP is about leadership. It's the nexus, the focal point of the nexus of all the government and all the efforts it does. It's about leadership. There's all these activities we do. We have great activities. We've heard about those and we see those and they're great accomplishments. But in the end, the FEMP staff, they're a bunch of leaders. We provide leadership out to the federal government, out to the state government, out to the world, out to everybody. That's what FEMP is. So FEMP is about leadership. So I added the FEMP L at the end, the FEMP leadership. So Simp is about leadership.
And Mary, I'm going to take issue. You talk to us like we're former FEMP director. Once you've been a FEMP director, it never leaves you and it still remains a part of me today. I try to wash it off in the shower morning and it just will not come off. And so we're always FEMP directors. We always will be FEMP directors. And you know and I have to commend Mary. Mary, you're also brave. You have the three of us come up here and talk. You had no idea what we're going to say. You will put your career on the line today. So Mary, good luck to the future and great program. FEMP changed my life and I think it's changed the lives of almost everyone in here in some way shape or form and continues to live within us and everything we think and do to this day going forward. Thanks.
>>Mary Sotos: All right. Well, with that, we have concluded our morning session and I just want to say thank you again to all of our speakers and I hope you've come away with some ideas, some things that were old that you'd like to make new again, some inspiration and a desire to connect. That is why we're here in person. So I hope in the 15 or so minute break, let's talk. Let's connect and figure out how to spend the next 50 years. Thank you.
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