Project Selections for FOA 2711: Carbon Storage Validation and Testing (Round 2)
CARBONSAFE PHASE II: STORAGE COMPLEX FEASIBILITY
Carbon Storage Complex Feasibility for Commercial Development in Paradise, Kentucky – CarbonSAFE Phase II — Battelle Memorial Institute (Columbus, Ohio) and major project participants plan to conduct a storage complex feasibility study to advance carbon capture and storage commerciality in the Southeastern Illinois Basin while supporting diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility in disadvantaged communities and environmental justice communities. The project will involve site characterization and assessment activities, including the drilling of a stratigraphic test well to validate the storage reservoir and confining system; subsurface modeling to develop a storage concept design, risk assessment, and mitigation plan to identify and reduce surface, subsurface, and non-technical risks; a monitoring plan to reduce leakage risks; and a techno-economic assessment to understand the economics, land, and pore space use and regulatory and policy status. The project will prioritize community dynamics, benefits, and outreach, including community characterization, evaluation of environmental justice issues and impacted communities, economic revitalization and jobs analysis, and technical and non-technical outreach. The project outcomes will boost Kentucky’s carbon capture and storage growth, reduce project risks, advance resources, and support disadvantaged communities. The results of this project could lead to a commercial-scale storage program with the potential of developing into a regional storage hub, reducing overall carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and aiding the region’s move toward a more energy-resilient and sustainable future.
DOE Funding: $8,999,989
Non-DOE Funding: $2,279,334
CTV III CO2 Storage Project in Sacramento Basin, California — Colorado School of Mines (Golden, CO), in collaboration with industry partners, aims to conduct a feasibility study to advance a carbon storage reservoir in the Sacramento Delta with the intent of de-risking and accelerating the implementation of storing 71 million metric tons (Mt) of carbon emissions at the Carbon Terra Vault (CTV) III project site. The reservoir will support emissions from existing point sources in the area, such as the Calpine Delta Energy Center, and a future direct air capture development to meet California’s CO2 removal goals. The team plans to acquire and analyze data to advance the existing Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI application, conduct a risk assessment study, develop a community benefits plan and implement an outreach plan that includes community meetings and stakeholder engagement, and assess the technical and economic case for the project. At the end of this project, preparation for a future CarbonSAFE application is expected, which will help accelerate the implementation of a commercial carbon capture and storage project in the Sacramento Delta. Additionally, this project will actively disseminate results and findings to facilitate carbon capture and storage implementation technologies, educate the public about carbon capture and storage, and guide carbon capture and storage incentives.
DOE Funding: $8,915,350
Non-DOE Funding: $2,228,837
Virginia CarbonSAFE Storage — The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Energy (Big Stone Gap, Virginia) intends to develop a CO2 storage hub in Wise County, Virginia with the potential to store more than 4 million Mt of CO2 emitted annually from existing and planned industrial sources in the surrounding area. The project has received source commitment letters from KeyState Energy and Eastman Chemical. The commonwealth’s Department of Energy will execute a comprehensive site characterization plan to demonstrate the feasibility of safely and permanently storing commercial volumes of CO2 in saline formations. Primary reservoir targets are in Devonian-Mississippian strata that, when used as a stacked storage complex, can store up to 900 million tons of CO2. Secondary reservoir targets consist of Silurian-Mississippian strata; however, further characterization is necessary to obtain more accurate storage resource calculations and inform reservoir models. The commonwealth will develop an infrastructure framework for the storage hub, as well as establish a risk registry and conduct a comprehensive risk assessment. The project will evaluate the overall commerciality of a regional southwest Virginia storage complex. The project will develop a comprehensive community and stakeholder engagement plan that includes diversity, equity, inclusion, accessibility, Justice 40 incentives, and economic revitalization and job creation considerations.
DOE Funding: $4,296,915
Non-DOE Funding: $1,285,387
California-Nevada CO2 Storage Project (CANstore) — Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, California) and the project participants intend to confirm the commercial storage capacity of a basalt storage complex and demonstrate the techno-economic feasibility of safely transporting and storing CO2 from the Tracy Power Station in Sparks, Nevada and other CO2 sources in the region to the onshore basalt storage complex on the Modoc Plateau in northeastern California. Another project objective is identifying and providing measurable economic, environmental, and societal benefits to the region through meaningful engagement with local and disadvantaged communities. The CANstore Phase II project will involve geologic characterization activities, including drilling a stratigraphic well through approximately 1,700 meters of basalts, interbeds, and sediments into the basement; well logging, and hydrologic testing campaign; subsurface modeling studies to predict the size and shape of the subsurface CO2 footprint; and sensitivity analyses to validate simulation, characterization, and monitoring approaches necessary to support a successful UIC Class VI permit application. The outcomes of this project will remove barriers to carbon capture and storage development in northern California-Nevada and demonstrate mineralization storage in basalts at a scale that will help de-risk net-zero and net-negative development projects across the region.
DOE Funding: $9,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $2,374,311
Permian Regional Carbon Sequestration Hub (PRCS) — Omnia Midstream Partners LLC (Tulsa, Oklahoma) plans to link proposed UIC Class VI wells and pipeline infrastructure with inactive legacy and existing CO2 enhanced oil recovery pipelines. This strategy will reduce expenses through operational redundancy and economies of scale, yield a favorable rate of return on invested capital, contribute to the decarbonization of the energy sector, and alleviate greenhouse gas emissions. Omnia plans the PRCS Hub as the primary conduit for future geologic storage activities in the Delaware Basin in Texas. Omnia has identified a suitable storage site based on several primary factors, including reservoir characteristics such as capacity, injectivity optimization, retention, induced seismicity risk mitigation, and pore space leasehold, along with proximity to emissions and legacy infrastructure. Omnia has been working with landowners and community members to achieve local benefits, including lower air pollution, job opportunities, increased tax revenues, and landowner participation. The plans also include leveraging the expertise of the skilled oil and gas workforce. Project leaders have formed partnerships with industry, academia, community, and landowners to expedite the deployment of the PRCS Hub.
DOE Funding: $8,921,052
Non-DOE Funding: $2,239,572
Atlantic Coast CO2 Emissions Storage Sink (Project ACCESS) — Southern States Energy Board (Peachtree Corners, Georgia) aims to conduct a storage complex feasibility study for potential CO2 storage in South Florida’s carbonate-rich geology to reduce emissions from CO2-emitting industrial facilities. Project ACCESS has sufficient nearby sources of CO2 to meet the CarbonSAFE requirements. The project will employ geophysical methods and a stratigraphic test well to gather site-specific geological data obtained through core samples, geophysical logs, and well testing, subsequently integrated into numerical models to verify the storage site’s suitability. The project will use the collected geological information to create plans for infrastructure, commercial development, monitoring, risk assessment, and outreach tailored to the site. The Community Benefits Plan commitments include developing a diverse list of community, labor, and stakeholder contacts; hosting a public presentation on Community Benefits Plan work; coordinating with university partners; engaging with Florida’s Department of Environmental Protection and the South Florida Water Management District; and coordinating student engagement and short-course events while promoting STEM carbon capture, utilization, and storage job opportunities to underrepresented groups and students at a Florida minority-serving campus. The Community Benefits Plan also aims to decrease environmental exposure and increase quality job creation, a clean energy job pipeline, and job training.
DOE Funding: $9,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $3,525,896
Red Hills CO2 Storage Hub (RHCSH) Feasibility Study — Trifecta Renewable Solutions (Plano, Texas) and project partners intend to develop a storage complex feasibility project and create the RHCSH at the Red Hills Mine in Ackerman, Mississippi. Supported by the Tennessee Valley Authority, the owner and the operator of the Ackerman Combined Cycle Plant, and Mississippi Lignite Mining Company, the owner and the operator of the Red Hills Mine, the hub is planned to store 1.8 million Mt of CO2 annually from the 705-megawatt (MW) Ackerman plant located adjacent to the proposed storage hub. The project aims to confirm the proposed hub’s suitability for commercial-scale and safe CO2 storage. The Community Benefits Plan supports short- and long-term goals by promoting public outreach, environmental justice, diversity, equality, inclusion, and accessibility principles, and local workforce support. A preliminary geologic assessment in the Ackerman area concluded potential storage formations exist with suitable salinity, porosity, permeability, and overlying/underlying sealing formations for CO2 storage. The geological characterization activities undertaken will determine these controlling parameters.
DOE Funding: $9,000,000
Non-DOE Funding: $2,498,000
Alaska Railbelt Carbon Capture and Storage (ARCCS) Project — University of Alaska Fairbanks (Fairbanks, Alaska) intends to determine the feasibility of developing a commercial-scale CO2 geologic storage complex to store more than 50 million Mt of CO2 safely and economically in south-central Alaska. The project will meet this objective by evaluating a CO2 storage complex to determine its suitability for storing CO2 emissions from the proposed Susitna Power Plant and aggregating emissions from two existing plants. The Beluga River Field, a nearly depleted unitized gas field, is proposed as the primary CO2 storage horizon, with an estimated 157 million Mt of potential storage. Completion of the ARCCS project is expected to notably reduce the project risk profile by defining the carbon storage capacity in the northern Cook Inlet Basin. The project will promote energy security in Alaska, addressing the pending natural gas and electricity shortage in the Railbelt, which contains 75 percent of Alaska’s population. A social characterization analysis will identify communities and stakeholders, including diverse and disadvantaged subgroups, and inform an iterative process for Community Benefits Plan development, implementation, and evaluation.
DOE Funding: $8,880,349
Non-DOE Funding: $2,220,101
The Williams Echo Springs CarbonSAFE Storage Complex Feasibility Study — University of Wyoming (Laramie, Wyoming) and the project participants aim to conduct a storage complex feasibility study to develop a saline CO2 storage hub for current and future industries in the Echo Springs area of south-central Wyoming. Team member Williams Field Services Group has an initial source capable of supplying more than 100,000 Mt annually. The State of Wyoming has existing local transport pipelines for CO2, and Williams is experienced with pipeline transport as a midstream natural gas company. This two-year project will permit and drill a deep stratigraphic test well by the end of Year One and interpret the resulting data in Year Two, ensuring foundational data, models, and documents for further site development. Expected outcomes from this study include confirming which of the six stacked formations at Echo Springs can safely, securely, and economically store at least 50 million Mt of CO2 for 30 years; developing a commercial-scale monitoring, reporting, and verification plan; establishing foundations of community benefits and programs for later phases; and developing plans to link the storage site to pipeline transport.
DOE Funding: $8,998,257
Non-DOE Funding: $2,250,001
CARBONSAFE PHASE III: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND PERMITTING
Monkey Island Carbon Storage Project — Advanced Resources International Inc. (Arlington, Virginia) plans to develop a commercial-scale geologic CO2 storage hub in state waters near Monkey Island, Louisiana. The project will focus on establishing and performing a detailed commercial CO2 site assessment, followed by obtaining the necessary UIC Class VI permits and creating storage field development and community outreach plans. The project goals are to establish leading practices related to permitting requirements for offshore carbon capture and storage development for CO2 storage projects in Louisiana State waters and to attract brownfield/greenfield carbon capture and storage projects to the Louisiana Coast. Community outreach efforts will focus on bettering the socio-economic conditions for distressed communities by providing high-paying jobs to the displaced energy industry workforce and improving regional air quality.
DOE Funding: $21,175,655
Non-DOE Funding: $5,293,913
Total Value: $26,469,568
Project Crossroads: Appraising Storage Facilities to Decarbonize Northern Indiana, Northeastern Illinois, and Southwestern Michigan — BP Carbon Solutions LLC (Houston, Texas) intends to develop Project Crossroads as a geologic storage hub located around its Whiting Refinery to help with the decarbonization of northwestern Indiana. It is proposed that up to 23 million Mt of CO2 per year will be stored in the storage hub. Four characterization wells will be drilled across the project area, which includes Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. Each well will focus on characterizing the Upper Mt. Simon Sandstone. For two well locations, an UIC Class VI permit will be prepared and filed. The completed project will consist of multiple CO2 storage facilities linked by more than 100 miles of new pipeline. The Community Benefits Plan will foster a skilled and qualified workforce that will boost the economy and build a diverse capability for the industry and community. The plan will incorporate input from community partners and engagement with stakeholders to understand community expectations, address complex challenges within the community, and reduce adverse community impacts.
DOE Funding: $98,240,569
Non-DOE Funding: $39,805,214
Four Corners Carbon Storage Hub: CarbonSAFE Phase III Project — New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (Socorro, New Mexico) plans to perform a comprehensive commercial-scale site characterization study at three proposed storage sites within the San Juan Basin in northwest New Mexico to facilitate in the development of the Four Corners Carbon Storage Hub. The project will use data obtained from the geologic characterization study and environmental analysis to verify that each proposed site can securely store 50 million Mt of CO2 over a 30-year period. The project will prepare, submit, and obtain the UIC Class VI permit. The storage hub will source CO2 from at least four industrial sites and intends to store at least 240 million Mt of CO2 over 30 years. The project will continue with existing outreach programs and support industry-based programs to educate the public on the usefulness of integrated carbon capture and storage projects. Development of the storage hub will positively impact the community by reducing the region’s ambient CO2 concentration; directly and indirectly creating jobs that support the local and regional economy; providing additional streams of income that will accelerate development from carbon credits to support local communities and enhance the economic and financial resilience of the region; and providing socio-economic benefits associated with improving and expanding infrastructure.
DOE Funding: $41,409,910
Non-DOE Funding: $10,391,003
The Phoenix Project: Demonstration of Safe, Reliable Conversion of a Mature Oilfield for Dedicated CO2 Storage in the Permian Basin — Projeo Corporation (Crane County, Texas) intends to demonstrate the feasibility of safely converting a mature oil and gas field in the Permian Basin into a dedicated CO2 storage facility. The project will focus on detailed site characterization and risk mitigation. Detailed characterization will help to determine the capacity and injectivity of the storage complex. The project will use information gathered from the characterization efforts to complete a storage field development plan and to apply for one or more UIC Class VI well permits. The project will undertake a risk assessment and mitigation plan to determine reliable and cost-effective ways to evaluate legacy wellbore conditions and risks and mitigation measures. As a part of this project, Projeo will perform a CO2 front-end engineering and design (FEED) study and a CO2 source feasibility study for CO2 supply sources and transportation options. The project will also develop and deploy a community, labor, and stakeholder engagement plan, which will include a full Justice 40 plan and activities.
DOE Funding: $38,376,061
Non-DOE Funding: $10,176,967
A Critical Carbon Storage Hub for the Louisiana Chemical Corridor — River Parish Sequestration LLC (Houston, Texas) plans to develop the River Parish Sequestration Project (RPS Project) as a CO2 transportation and storage solution for the Louisiana Chemical Corridor. The RPS Project is located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans and is adjacent to more than 50 existing industrial facilities that emit approximately 60 million tons of CO2 per year. The project will complete key site characterization and permitting efforts for three injection wells with a combined storage capacity of 176 million tons of CO2 stored over 30 years. Site characterization efforts include an aerial magnetic survey to identify artificial penetrations in the project area and permitting, drilling, and injection testing of a stratigraphic test well. The project will also complete a FEED study for the RPS Pipeline System, which will transport CO2 from the industrial emitters to the carbon capture and storage complex. Permitting efforts for CO2 injection wells include resolving agency comments on UIC Class VI permit applications. The project will implement the Community Benefits Plan, including outreach and engagement efforts to educate the community such as working with the River Parish Community College to provide instruction and curriculum enhancements that will prepare students for careers in carbon capture and storage.
DOE Funding: $25,634,345
Non-DOE Funding: $6,408,587
Tri-State CO2 Storage Hub; Tri-State Project — Southern States Energy Board (Peachtree Corner, Georgia) intends to characterize four stacked geologic reservoir and caprock carbon storage systems in the West Virginia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania region to better understand suitability for CO2 storage and caprock competence. Currently, the region has no viable CO2 storage solutions despite a clear customer base (131 industrial facilities within 50 miles of the proposed project site that report nearly 47 million Mt of CO2 emissions per year). Thus, this project aims to construct the Tri-State Carbon Capture and Storage Hub to support the decarbonization of the region. The project will characterize the target formations using data from geophysical methods and data obtained from the drilling of three characterization wells. The project will develop a Community Benefits Plan to initiate broad engagement and collaboration between Ohio and West Virginia state agencies. The Community Benefits Plan also calls for establishing and maintaining a Community Advisory Board, hosting pre-drilling community engagement events, building and supporting competencies regarding subsurface modeling to support UIC Class VI permitting, establishing and growing relationships with regional Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and supporting exposure to carbon capture and storage and energy transition career opportunities. The project team will submit all the necessary documentation to augment pending Class VI permit application(s).
DOE Funding: $55,248,174
Non-DOE Funding: $13,812,663
CarbonSAFE Phase III, Polk Carbon Storage Complex Detailed Site Characterization — Tampa Electric Company (Tampa, Florida) plans to perform a detailed site characterization study for the proposed Polk Carbon Storage Complex near the Polk Power Station, which is an existing 1,190-MW natural gas combined cycle power station in Mulberry, Florida. Previous assessments suggest that the Polk Carbon Storage Complex can store a minimum of 150 million Mt of CO2 over 30 years. The study is designed to further characterize the geology of the proposed Polk Carbon Storage Complex and validate its storage capacity. Characterization efforts will consist of drilling two stratigraphic test wells, completing a baseline 3D seismic survey, and geological and geochemical lab testing. The project will use data obtained from the site characterization to construct a site-specific risk assessment, update the storage field development plan, conduct a business financial analysis, and develop a plan to perform public outreach and stakeholder engagement. The project will file a UIC Class VI permit. Tampa Electric has the goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 80% by 2040 and achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. Development of the Polk Carbon Storage Complex will contribute to meeting its goals.
DOE Funding: $88,349,189
Non-DOE Funding: $22,087,297
Learn more about the selected projects and how DOE's investments will benefit communities across the country.