The Coal FIRST (Flexible, Innovative, Resilient, Small, Transformative) initiative will develop the coal plant of the future needed to provide secure, stable, reliable power, with near zero emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. This R&D will underpin coal-fired power plants that are capable of flexible operations to meet the needs of the grid; use innovative and cutting-edge components that improve efficiency and reduce emissions; provide resilient power to Americans; are small compared to today’s conventional utility-scale coal; and will transform how coal technologies are designed and manufactured.
Changes to the U.S. electricity industry are forcing a paradigm shift in how the nation’s generating assets are operated. Coal-fired power plants optimized as baseload resources are being increasingly relied on as load-following resources to support electricity generated from intermittent renewable capacity, as well as to provide critical ancillary services to the grid. In addition, wide-scale retirements of the nation’s existing fleet of coal-fired power plants—without replacement—may lead to a significant undermining of the resiliency of America’s electricity supply.
Nevertheless, the need for considerable dispatchable generation, critical ancillary services, and grid reliability—combined with potentially higher future natural gas prices, and energy security concerns, such as the importance of onsite fuel availability during extreme weather events—create the opportunity for advanced coal-fired generation, for both domestic and international deployment. These fundamental changes to the operating and economic environment in which coal plants function are expected to persist into the next decade and beyond. Deployment of new coal plants will require a different way of thinking.
To that end, the Department of Energy envisions that the future coal fleet may be based on electricity generating units possessing many of the following traits:
- High overall plant efficiency (40%+ HHV or higher at full load, with minimal reductions in efficiency over the required generation range)
- Small (unit sizes of approximately 50 to 350 MW), maximizing the benefits of high-quality, low-cost shop fabrication to minimize field construction costs, and project cycle time
- Near-zero emissions including CO2 capture
- Capable of high ramp rates and minimum loads commensurate with estimates of renewable market penetration by 2050
- Integration with thermal or other energy storage (e.g., chemical production) to ease intermittency inefficiencies and equipment damage
- Minimized water consumption
- Reduced design, construction, and commissioning schedules from conventional norms by leveraging techniques including but not limited to advanced process engineering and parametric design methods for modular design
- Enhanced maintenance features including technology advances with monitoring and diagnostics to reduce maintenance and minimize forced outages
- Integration with coal upgrading, or other plant value streams (e.g., co-production)
- Capable of natural gas co-firing.
The Coal FIRST program integrates advancements from all areas (e.g., advanced materials, CO2 capture technologies, sensors/control, turbines, etc.) as appropriate and performs new research that creates a coal power generation systems that meets most if not all of the above requirements that future power generation demands.
The Coal FIRST initiative will make coal-fired power plants in the future more adaptive to the modern electrical grid. The initiative will integrate early-stage R&D on power plant components with currently available technologies into a first-of-a-kind system. Through innovative technologies and advanced approaches to design and manufacturing, the initiative will look beyond today’s utility-scale power plant concepts (e.g. base-load units) in ways that integrate with the electrical grid in the United States and internationally.
Coal FIRST Announcements
- Department of Energy Announces $100M in Investments in Coal FIRST
- Energy Department Announces Intent to Fund Research that Advances the Coal Plants of the Future
- Coal FIRST Infographic
Please contact FECommunications@hq.doe.gov with questions.