The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office and Fuel Cell Technologies Office jointly sponsored a workshop on Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters (HHBPW) on March 17–18, 2015, in Washington, D.C. The workshop focused on the use of biological, biochemical, and other techniques to produce hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons (containing three or more carbon molecules) from wastewaters. Experts participating in the workshop discussed relevant research, development, and demonstration activities, including recent breakthroughs, ongoing work, and potential future directions. The ideas presented in this report represent a snapshot of the perspectives and concepts offered by the individuals who attended the HHBPW workshop.