This is the text version of the video Fuel Cell Technologies Overview at the DOE Hydrogen Program 2022 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting.

Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office: So good afternoon, everyone. I'm going to provide an overview of the fuel cell technology activities for the last year. So trying to advance my slide here. I don't think I have access to that. There we are. Okay. So, fuel cells convert the chemical energy in hydrogen and other fuels to electricity, and are a key element in achieving a clean and equitable energy economy.

Fuel cell technologies are a bridge between the production, delivery, and storage of hydrogen that Ned talked about with the actual end uses. Those end uses being using flexible fuels including hydrogen for this range of applications. These could include chemical and industrial processes, fuel cells for power generation, for transportation and stationary applications, and long duration energy storage for grid in the form of reversible systems. Fuel cells provide a wide range of benefits including efficient energy conversion, the ability to use domestically produced fuels, including hydrogen, as well as reduced or zero emissions when—once you are using hydrogen as a direct fuel.

Fuel cell technologies applies innovative research, development, demonstration that's focused on end use requirements. So the goal is to develop fuel cells that are competitive with incumbent and emerging technologies across all of these applications that I mentioned previously. The goal is to develop these fuel cells to meet market needs, as I just mentioned, and this is very important because we're not looking to develop a technology for the sake of developing a technology, and we're not looking to develop a technology to the point where it can go. But we want to make sure that these technologies are competitive.

For that reason, we are basing a whole strategy on meeting market-driven targets. These are driven by the end use application itself, so we do have a series of system-level targets that would allow us to achieve competitiveness with incumbent present technologies like internal combustion engines for trucks. And these are life-cycle-cost based, so we're looking at being able to achieve a cost reduction to make the technology competitive, but at the same time we want to meet the performance and durability requirements to address the end use constraints.

Examples of targets you can see on the slide here are the ones that arethat come around all the time. $80 per kilowatt for cost for a fuel cell system for heavy-duty truck applications meeting the 25,000-hour durability. We do have targets for a variety of applications including stationary power, $1,000 per kilowatt cost for an 80,000-hour durability, as well as targets for reversible fuel cells for long duration energy storage that you can see on the slide.

These system-level targets are supported by targets at the component and material level, at the stack level, and as well as a series of milestones that are time driven, and they allow us to meet those system-level targets. Example here that I have on the screen is one MEA level target that exists for heavy-duty fuel cells, and this is the main target of our Million Mile Fuel Cell Truck Consortium. So this is a combined target. It's to be met by 2025, and it looks at achieving 2.5 kilowatts per gram of platinum group metal at end of life.

So the whole program is driven to make, to enable market competitiveness. In order to do that we need to address specific challenges. What are those challenges? The ones that you hear every year: cost, durability, and performance in terms of efficiency and power density. So we're looking to address those through RD&D at the material and component level, such as for a catalyst to reduce or eliminate platinum group metal content in fuel cells. We're looking at membranes, advancing components other than in the MEA, such as bipolar plates.

And then again, one step further you need to integrate those components into stacks and systems, and for that you also need to balance of plant components that are durable and low cost and available, as well as one needs to look at manufacturing, and specifically at the supply chain as well, because one of the major goals that we have is to be able to strengthen domestic supply chain and be able to have the whole supply chain being addressed.

For those following the program you know that we have been focusing in the past on light-duty vehicle applications. We've advanced from that with an emphasis on heavy-duty applicationstrucks, rail, marine, mining applications are the ones that we are focusing more on. And for that we're taking advantage of all of the advances in the light-duty sector that we have achieved over the years. For instance, we had a cost reduction that’s been demonstrated to be 70% since 2008. That's due to a lot of progress in the technology, the way our support and the way the stakeholder and research community have been addressing the specific challenges.

Piggybacking on that we want to focus on the heavy-duty applications, which have considerable benefits not only to medium duty, not only for transportation, but also for stationary applications. And the program does consider those long-term approaches such as focusing on platinum group metal free catalysts, or on alkaline membrane fuel cell technologies as well.

Looking at the budget before I go into more details about the program itself, we are currently at $30 million with a focus on the material and component development side. Catalysis, membranes, and ionomers, looking a bipolar plates and gas diffusion layers. And then there is a system integration element to the program, which involves the development of balance of plant components, supported by systems analysis, and especially now a higher emphasis on advanced manufacturing and recycling.

In addition to the core program itself, a lot of the manufacturing and recycling, as I'm going to mention later on, is going to be covered under the Infrastructure and Investment Jobs Act, also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, and that is an effort of $100 million per year over five years, so that's a pretty substantial effort. What I want to mention as well is that we've been coordinating with the systems development and integration part of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office, as well as with the Vehicle Technologies Office, and investing $5 million into SuperTruck, the SuperTruck III program.

So let me kind of give you a bit of supporting information as it has been provided by our analysis effort. We have a substantial cost analysis effort, and we've had that for many, many years to allow us to gauge our R&D progress, and also to kind of benchmark where our lab-demonstrated technology is and what still needs to be done. So cost analysis has, with everything else, shifted its focus to trucks and heavy-duty applications, and looking at systems that are 275 kilowatt net being allowed to meet 25,000 hour lifetimes.

So the specific designs that are incorporated in the cost analysis are the ones that allow us to meet that durability. So setting that as a prerequisite, we allow costs to flow, and it comes as a [inaudible] later on at the expense of cost as well. We are currently at $185 per kilowatt at the highest volume of 100,000 vehicles per year and systems per year. That actually increases as we lower the volume, and one would expect that, at $196 at 50,000 units manufactured per year, and projected to be $323 per kilowatt at the low volume of 1,000 units per year.

What I also want to mention is the fact that we include other elements in the analysis as well, so we not only try to project the cost, but we want to look at the whole range of what we can get out of that analysis. And one way to do that is to use single variable sensitivity analysis, and this is used as a tool to identify what are the key cost levers. And from that one can see that we havewe can identify three big hitters here looking at the membrane electrode assembly fuel cell power density, looking at air management, as well as the loading related to the use of platinum group metals for catalysts.

So now how does that break down? The actual stack cost itself is the one that dominates the cost of the system, so it's more than two-thirds of that. So for out of theif we're looking at a volume of 50,000 units per year and we have $196 for the system, $141 is associated with the stack itself. This is kind of different to what we've seen within the automotive application where it was more of a 50/50 split, plus/minus obviously. The biggest cost component of the stack is the catalyst itself, and the fact that we need to use platinum for heavy-duty applications. Reason being is that we need to meet that durability. So take into account that having to meet the durability, we need more of the platinum, and there it's the biggest component of the cost.

The BOP side we see that air management is the one that drives cost. It's air management itself that's most—that's the critical cost component for balance of plant, but also the fact that when we design our system, we don't design the balance of plant to meet the full 25,000 hours of durability, which means that we yet need to allow for BOP replacement throughout the lifetime of the system, so that incurs additional cost as well.

Looking at the analysis, and this has been done in the Million Mile Fuel Cell Truck Consortium, and led by Argonne National Lab. Before I go into this, I just want to say that the cost analysis itself and the specific system analysis are really well aligned to each other and they complement each other, where it's rolled into one single analysis piece. So while we don't make systems ourself by hand, and we don't test this on the road at least for the time being, what we're doing is we're projectingwe're designing systems with a lab-demonstrated or commercially available technology.

The assumptionthe key assumption to design the system as I mentioned previously is that it needs to meet the 25,000 hours of durability. So if you look at this you'll see that the lifetime itself is something that we assume that we can meet, and in order to do that we unfortunately have to pay the price in cost. So we need to overload our MEAs. Additional platinum is there. We have to use platinum that's not alloyed and not the more advanced catalyst that we use for automotive applicationsthe platinum cobalt, platinum nickel typesbut we're using pure platinum in order for it to be more durable, and also a lot more of it. So we're talking loadings of 0.4 milligrams per square centimeters, or 0.45 for instance.

In addition to that what we can see is there is two things that we need to additionally do and are critical. First of all, we need to improve our power density at end of life. So we have a system that's 275 kilowatts of power produced at the end of life. So we can't take an expense and assume that hey, we'll start off with that, the part that's needed but at end of life we're going to use like 20, 30, or 40 percent less. That's not an option. So there is more work that needs to be in that area. In addition to that, in order to be able to reduce the costs we have to reduce the amount of catalyst that we have in there. So again, part of that same PGM loadings are key areas that we need to address.

So we have a target of $80 per kilowatt. We have an existing cost of $323 per kilowatt at low volume. How do we get there? Especially how do we get there in the next eight years? So there is four critical areas that we need to focus on. As I mentioned, and I'm kind of being repetitive, I'm trying to [inaudible], with what the situation is here. First of all we can get a reasonable cost reduction through increasing power density and reducing the platinum or platinum group metal loading. We need to improve durability, actual durability, not system design durability. And once you do that, then you get a smaller system. You get less active area that you need and yet, more durable fuel cells.

Component development, working at more durable and more costcomponents that are reasonable cost such as membranes, bipolar plates, and balance of plant components. We are assuming thicker membranes in order to meet the durability. In order to be able to have thinner membranes we need to have R&D progress in that area as well.

And last but not least, and I'll focus a bit more on this one, looking at manufacturing innovations and economies of scale. So okay, one, you know, you can easily understand that once you move from 1,000 to 10,000 to 50,000 to 100,000 units per year, you are to have reduction in cost in those economies of scale. What's significantly important as well is that you need to work on manufacturing innovation. Why do you need to do that? First of all, a lot of these processes and manufacturing processes serve as bottlenecks. So even if there is not, let's assume there is not significant cost, if you have failure in that, that ruins your whole ability and the whole way you look at things.

Now in addition to that, once you move from let's say 1,000 units to 10,000 to 50,000 to 100,000 unitsand these are not scalesthese are scales that do not exist today. You need to be able to develop the processes, demonstrate and validate those as well. So what can these look like? Working with our cost analysis with some ways, some pathways to—that could incur cost reductions in manufacturing.

Now a simple one, and we've addressed this at a recent workshop, is looking at cell stacking as well as MEA assembly innovations. Reducing the cycle time, increasing throughput, reducing the number of parallel lines to achieve that target volume that you need, and looking at reduction in high volume assembly cost. So for instance moving your MEA assembly moving from pick and place to roll-to-roll assembly processes, applying those innovations, reducing times from, say from six seconds to less than half a second, in cell stacking, as well as from 15 seconds to less than 0.5 seconds, that incurs a reduction in cost.

And as you can see in both the figures here, if you just assume a high-volume process from where we are today in 2022 to where we can be in 2030, and this is one single pathway that has gone through our analysis. And I'm sure that we can get even higher cost reductions if we further look into this and allow the community to work on this. We can get a 70% reduction in the cell stacking and even higher, 75 percent, in the assembly of MEAs.

So with that, I would like to move a bit more toward our RD&D program, and the key element of that is concerned with work under the Million Mile Fuel Cell Truck Consortium. For those who do not know, a million miles is the driving lifetime of a truck, and that corresponds to 25,000 hours of system operation there with a minimum of 10% voltage degradation.

So what is the consortium itself? The consortium is a lab-led consortium, including partners fromselected through funding opportunities announcementsfrom universities and industry. The core mission is to advance efficiency and durability, lower the cost of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, also known as proton exchange membrane fuel cells for those heavy truck and other heavy-duty applications. In order to do this, they're looking at a team approach. They have various teams that look at specific elements, such as our analysis team, their results I showed previously. Durability, looking at component integration and materials development. And their main objective is to achieve the MEA target that's shown on the slide and that I mentioned earlier in terms of end-of-life MEA performance.

The team has grown considerably since the last year. And when we set forward with this effort, we had only three MEA projects. And when we established the core lab team, it consists of the five main laboratories, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, NREL and Argonne. Our affiliate laboratories are doing work and they are Brookhaven, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as well as NIST. There is a lot of partnership opportunities and there are a lot of partnerships that are going beyond the core labs obviously, and we have added partners to our projects that have been selected through our funding opportunity announcements covering a lot of the areas that would lead to that eventual lowering of the cost of the system, as well as being able to have competitive performance and durability.

So we have projects, and you can see those industry and university partners on thewhat I see as my left hand of the screenlooking at MEAs, membranes, stacks, and more recently in the last year we've added projects on the development of bipolar plates and air management.

So let me just go through some of the work that we've, that the core lab team and the partners have done in the last year. Step number one was we're looking at a new application here, and for fuel cells at least. And for that purpose, we want to see where we are. We want to see where cost is for instance, through our cost analysis. We want to see what sort of performance and durability can we weigh. What are the tradeoffs that we need to apply and what is the penalty that we need to pay in order to be able to get this application on its way?

So as a first step, M2FCT has been baselining membrane electrode assembly performance and durability, and for that reason one example here is examining catalyst with different characteristics. When I talk about different characteristics, you know, catalyst particle size, surface area, the fact whether they're alloyed or de-alloyed with another element, or it's just pure platinum. And for that as an example of two commercially available catalysts looking at platinumcarbon supported platinum and platinum cobalt, one can see that there is an element of an activity penalty that you pay when you go from the alloy to the monometallic system, and that's something that we know, obviously.

The issue though with those bimetallic alloyed catalysts is that they don't have demonstrated durability, not for this sort of application. And for that reason, we've chosen annealed platinum on carbon being the baseline to meet durability current density requirements. And that's whatthat's the catalyst that's been incorporated in our analysis as well.

So we've set the baseline, and I mentioned one of the team's approaches is to look at the development of materials. Those are membranes, ionomers, and catalysts. So one of the goals is hey, how can we get that high activity that was demonstrated for the bimetallic catalyst and try to be at that durability as well? There have been several projects within the core lab effort, and in this one here I just want to show you a catalyst from Los Alamos and Brookhaven that have been able to exceed the baseline performance.

The big focus here is on the dark blue lines, as that's the performance that is measured after 90,000 cycles in an accelerated stress test. So your baseline certain performance at end of life, and what was been seen throughout the development efforts that either nitrogen doped into metallic platinum nickel at Brookhaven or it's metallic platinum cobalt on carbon or manganese doped carbon at Los Alamos are able to exceed that end-of-life performance, and actually as one would expect, have that superior beginning-of-life performance.

What's really needed now is to take those catalysts and further develop those and actually optimize their integration into MEAs, and that's where the whole team is going to play a big role. In addition to the work from Brookhaven and Los Alamos, there is potential progress and potential advancement from work that's currently being conducted at Argonne National Lab as well.

So moving from catalyst, I just want to highlight a couple of our partner projects. The first one is a project that's being led by General Motors. So one of the key elements of trying to enhance durability is the use of cerium scavengers in membrane, and in the fuel cells in order to allow for higher membrane durability. The problem with cerium is when cerium salt-based additives used there tend to migrate during operation. That means that they leave vacant spots in the membrane that is vulnerable to early failure.

So what GM has been looking at is to use immobilized additives that would notbe well anchored and respond from that. They have multiple promising approaches using heteropoly acid radical scavengers with your perfluoro sulfonated acid, the funk acid, sorry, to make their membrane materials, as well as dispersed cerium zirconium oxide nanofibers. And in both cases, if one is to follow with the open circuit voltage stability, one can see that with the addition of those immobilized additives we see a considerable increase in the stability of the membrane. So that's a key advancement in the area on the path forward. In addition to that the project does work on advancing catalysts and looking at support stability as well.  

Another project that I want to highlight is one that's being led by Carnegie Mellon University, and both of these team members are listed on the slide. One of the issues that Carnegie Mellon is looking at is to be able to increase theagain, not only the durability but looking to advanced ionomers that are higher performing and more durable than the conventional one. So in principle the way they've been looking at this is to have a less flexible conventional backbone. So they're looking at replacing the tetrafluoroethylene backbone with a more rigid one by adding a steric hindrance group.

This ionomer is what they term high oxygen permeability ionomer, or HOPI, and the reason why this is also important is to allow, especially at higher voltage operations it is to allow for increased availability or increased flux of oxygen and protons to those active platinum sites. So those are the ones that drive the reaction. You have to go through the ionomer, so that element is not, you know, it's not so much a point of having an ionomer at reduced cost, but it is very important to have one that works.

And they have been able to have a more rigid ionomer backbone. They've been able to have a higher, more amorphous layer that's less sensitive to water. And what that does is, you know, first of all they have seen and demonstrated over 2 times higher oxygen permeability than conventional ionomer, you know, more than a 50% increase in mass activity. You would expect that. Noticeably better high current density at low platinum loading, and lower oxygen transport resistance, 40%, and very important more than 40% reduction in degradation rate. Again, these are multifaceted projects that it's not focusing solely on developing the ionomer, but it has met various aspects in terms of integration.   

In order to though be able to track durability, what's really important as well is to be able to have the appropriate accelerated stress tests. And the reason why we need that is, let's face it, you're not going to go and wait for a system to fail and put it on the road for a million miles or how long it lasts, or wait for 25,000 hours of operation to see where you are. That's something that has been done as well for the light-duty sector, and I think the first step was to rely on the findings from those, the automotive side of our program in the past.

We want to have ASTs for components and materials, catalysts, the membrane, chemical degradation, looking at chemical mechanical stability. Looking to ways to be able to track what your startup and shut down and fuel starvation issues could be, and look at this across the MEA drive cycle. M2FCT has a working group that addresses that looking at developing those ASTs through cycles and looking at all of those components, and so its members from industry and the national labs. So this is a comprehensive cohesive effort, and it doesn't just rely on one principal investigator's work.

An example of what we need to do and where we are is that in the past we've usually relied, especially on the automotive side, relied on hydrogen nitrogen tests, specifically looking at catalyst degradation. You know, 30,000 cycles at the time. First step to transfer those findings into heavy-duty applications meant that you need to go up to 90,000 cycles, and those are the results that I showed you previously, and in a 150-hour test at 80°C. Now this is not though a test that was really representative in what's needed in truck operation.

So we're looking at a single AST that would consider degradation of both catalyst supports and membranes, as well. So that's the first thing. The second thing is we're looking at an AST that would operate under real world operating conditions under hydrogen/air instead of hydrogen/nitrogen. The one that M2FCT has been working on has changed a couple of things. First of all take into account voltage clipping so we're not cutting off at 0.95 volts, they're cutting it off at 0.925 volts, so you need less cycles there. As well as they're lowering the inlet relative humidity to incorporate chemical-mechanical durability of the membrane itself.

The AST that's been in the development phase is longer duration, which is more representative of truck operation. At the same time though it's less cycles. So that's ongoing effort. Now again, it's looking at, for instance, crucial elements of what can degrade, such as the membrane, as well as for instance platinum migrating through the membrane and the support itself.

We're not alone in this. The ASTs themselves are developed through M2FCT, the team, but they have reached out to the international community to kind of foster those discussions to ensure that we're leveraging efforts and not duplicating efforts. What we're doing on our side seems reasonable at the global level as well. Having eight countries in there, European Union, Japan, Korea, to demonstrate international efforts. Thirty institutions and 80 researchers have come together and formed the group to discuss and see where we are, what the issues are, could beand you can see on the slide the actual website itself.

I'm going to move on to one of our longer-term approaches, ElectroCat, which focuses on the development of PGM-free catalyst for fuel cells and electrolyzers. I'm going to talk a bit more about the fuel cell side as well. So this relies on the rich expertise that exists at the national labs looking at developing catalysts, synthesis, processing, high throughput methods, as well as computational and data management efforts. Two key highlights from here, one is the—I think my computer is kind of stuck here so let's see. So if we can move to slide 25. Can everybody hear me?

Eric Miller: Dimitrios, we hear you. We're waiting for the slides to come back up.

Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos: Okay. And I apologize for that. There we are. Thank you. So accomplishment number one is the fact that in the last year we improved the performance of PGM-free catalyst by 25% over the baseline. We're looking at our iron-based nitrogen carbon catalyst and hydrogen-air, which is a step further from what we've been doing in the past looking more on the activity side, so we want to look at what the performance is under real-world operating conditions.

So the catalyst been able to achieve the milestones that we set for that. It's also been tested for the durability and we take into account durability when we test these catalysts. These testing and protocols had been published in Nature Catalysis for the whole community to disseminate that and create that level playing field. And I would recommend everyone to go out and check those out. Again a bit of a hiccup there. Oh there we are.

So another element that we've been looking at is data-science-guided high-throughput PGM-free synthesis. One of the key bottlenecks in looking at high throughput synthesis in general is there are so many variables. We're looking at precursors. We're looking at synthesis conditions, synthesis annealing, or chemical methods that you can look at. And for that we've developed and implemented an adaptive learning design route to rely on machine learning to assist in that process.

So ElectroCat has developed artificial neural network models, which combine with statistical inference methods are able to provide that and outline that path forward as a key example here. We see below that through just three iterations, starting from 16 samples, ending up with only 36 samples, we've been able to optimize a catalyst and increase its activity by 70% through machine learning guided synthesis.

Touch upon diversity, equity, and inclusion. Sunita actually showed this slide as well. [Inaudible] looking at Minority Serving Institution Partnership program at Los Alamos, and it's in collaborationthere is a collaboration between Los Alamos, the Minority Serving Institutions, and industry as well. So we're looking at developing diversity and equity and accountability.

Another example of that is at M2FCT, so it's not just at Los Alamos, it's the whole lab network there, hosting undergraduate and graduate student interns looking at Office of Science, research fellows to gain fuel cell and hydrogen experience. Some examples are noted on the slide. For instance, we have two MSI students looking at internship programs, looking at short course programs targeting HBCUs, targeting Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander and Hispanic-serving institutions. Next slide please.

I want to spend a couple of minutes on the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, Section 815, which is concerned with clean hydrogen manufacturing recycling. Next slide please. So that is the element of the program that as the name actually shows it's focusing on manufacturing and recycling. It's $500 million dollars over five years. That's about $100 million per year is looking at the whole supply chain. Next slide please.

So I'm just going to copy and paste what's in the program itself. I'm not going to go through this in a lot of detail. What I do want to mention is RD&D is focused on advancing clean hydrogen delivery, storage, and use equipment, with manufacturing for electrolyzers being covered under 816. We want to improve—increase the efficiency of manufacturing processes. We want to rely on the use of existing infrastructure.

We want to support domestic supply chains, the use of alternative materials that are benevolent to the environment. And what's original here is operating in partnership with tribal energy development organizations, the Indian tribes, the Native Hawaiian community-based organizations, territories, freely associated States, or in areas that are economically distressed in the major natural-gas-producing regions of the United States.   

For the recycling effort, on the next slide please. We're looking at research, development, and demonstration to create innovative and practical approaches. And the goal is to increase the reuse and recycling of clean hydrogen technologies. Again, recovery, end use, reuse, recycling, we want to minimize environmental impacts looking at efficient disassembly, looking at alternative materials. And as well as the RD&D for efforts. What's included in the BIL is a provision to develop strategies to increase consumer acceptance and participation in recycling the fuel cells. Next slide.

This is pretty important. The next slide please. This is really important because it's not only, addressing the evident, but it's pretty important to address supply chain challenges. The DOE has issued or disseminated deep dive assessments of supply chains for a range of technology, there is 13 of those with water electrolyzers and fuel cells being one of them. And what we see is there are a lot of opportunities that manufacturing and recycling advances could address. You know, cost reductions, increasingthe increase of manufacturing capacities. Pretty essential.

Leadership on energy and environmental justice issues for a new industry, nascent industry as the hydrogen industry is. And the obvious development of domestic materials supplies. One example being ways to be able to address the challenge associated with the need for platinum group metals and the fact that we need to import those. Next slide please.

Stakeholder engagement has been a key part of our initial activity in this area, and that includes not only a series of workshops on manufacturing automation and recycling, looking at advanced components such as gas diffusion layers and power electronics. But also we've conducted a series of listening sessions with the tribal communities and justice communities as well. Next slide.

And we more importantly released a request for information, just summarizing the chief points out of that. We've got approximately 90 stakeholders that provided responses, more than a thousand pages. Majority of those came from industry, but also include academia and national labs and utilities. Just to go through these bullet points they confirm necessity of having a recycling consortium to advance the state of art for clean hydrogen technologies, and the recycling of.

Identifying research, development, and demonstration needs for manufacturing, specifically through automation and scaling of cell, stack, and system manufacturing. They've also identified gaps and what is needed in domestic supply and suggested a strategic platinum group metal reserve. And some of the respondents actually provided numbers that would support that. Next slide.

So I am going toward the end of my presentation. Next slide please. Looking at collaborations, as Ned pointed out. Our internal synergies within the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office, looking at synergies between hydrogen and fuel cells through ElectroCat, looking at SuperTruck with systems development and integration, and looking at systems analysis. There are cross-program collaborations, you know, with various offices, there are cross-cutting initiatives, and there is a lot of cross-cutting effort related to the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law. And next slide please.

Highlights and milestones, so we've shifted those. If you look at last year's you will see that we've being able to meet a lot of the milestones from last year and, moving forward, we want to be able to achieve the ones in 2023. Key highlights forthat we want to achieve, that we still need to achieve in 2022, is to meet durability adjusted costs of $185 per kilowatt at 50,000 units for trucks. And moving on to 2023, being able to lower that to $170 per kilowatt. We want to be able to, you know, we've added partners to M2FCT. We have the aspiration of adding additional partners this year, as well as kicking off those 815 Manufacturing and Recycling projects.

And with that, I would like to just move to the next slide and acknowledge the team. Everyone is listed on there. Dave, Donna, Greg, William, John, Colin, and Eric. I'll thank you very much, as well as Eric sorry for taking a bit longer.

Eric Miller: No worries.

Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos: Thank you very much.