Cell Wall Chemistry of Biofuel

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Grades

9-12

Subject

Bioenergy

Summary

This module focuses on the production of sugar (glucose and maltose) from cornstarch.

The first lesson from this module relates glucose production from cornstarch to ethanol fuel production from corn stover.

Another lesson uses a calculator based colorimeter interface from the Vernier Company to quantify the hydrolysis of starch to sugar by salivary amylase. In this lesson saliva is added to a starch solution containing a couple of drops of iodine. Light initially doesn’t pass through this solution. If the absorption decreases after the addition of the saliva, this means more light is passing through and the starch is being hydrolyzed (broken down into maltose and glucose).

The third lesson again uses colorimetry but this time to measure starch hydrolysis by dilute (1% volume to volume) sulfuric acid. Finally, we offer suggestions for using starch hydrolysis and colorimetry as a basis for student designed experiments.

Learning Objectives:

Students will

  • Recognize the environmental and economic benefits of ethanol as a fuel additive
  • Identify ethanol as a product of sugar fermentation
  • Know that photosynthesis produces complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
  • Understand that hydrolysis is a technique used by chemists to break apart polysaccharides into saccharides that can be fermented
  • Demonstrate that starch can be hydrolyzed by salivary amylase
  • Demonstrate appropriate safe laboratory behavior and technique while mixing chemicals
  • Follow correct procedures for using a colorimeter
  • Document observations and data in an organized appropriate laboratory format
  • Analyze and interpret the results of the colorimetric data and observations
  • Communicate their results orally
Curriculum

Science

Plan Time

N/A

Materials

RESOURCES/MATERIALS:
Protective eye wear
Vinyl gloves
Lab apron
Graduated cylinder
250 mL beaker
Stirring rod
Distilled water
Four to eight 15mL test tubes and stoppers per group
Labels for glassware
Waterproof pen
Notebook
Mass balance
Weighing paper
Vernier LabPro and cords Order Code: LABPRO Price: $220
Vernier Colorimeter and cuvettes Order Code: COL-BTA Price: $110
http://vernier.com/
Kimwipes
Disposable pipettes Carolina Biological Supply Product Code 73-6984
3.0 mL capacity Price: $4.10 Pack of 100
http://carolina.com
TI Graphing Calculator (preferably TI-83 Plus Silver Edition), or a computer
Corn Starch (grocery item)
Iodine Tincture (pharmaceutical item and there are hazards for Iodine Tincture,
please know and follow all safety measures)

Standards

CONTENT STANDARD A: Science as Inquiry
As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop

  • Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
  • Understandings about scientific inquiry

CONTENT STANDARD B: Physical Science
As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

  • Structure of atoms
  • Structures and of properties in matter
  • Chemical reactions

CONTENT STANDARD C: Life Science

  • Understanding of the cell

CONTENT STANDARD E: Science and Technology
As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop

  • Abilities of technological design
  • Understandings about science and technology

CONTENT STANDARD F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

  • Natural resources
  • Environmental quality
  • Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges

CONTENT STANDARD G: History and Nature of Science
As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

  • Science as a human endeavor
Owner

DOE ACTS

Lesson Plans/Activity