The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. The best available bench and pilot-scale conversion data are integrated with detailed process flow and engineering models to identify technical barriers where research and development could lead to significant cost improvements and to calculate production costs. Past design cases focused on finding pathways toward cost-competitive production of ethanol. This design case is the first to establish detailed cost targets for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock from biomass via a fast pyrolysis process.