JASON – a group of scientific thought leaders that has provided independent consultation to the U.S. government for over 50 years – undertook the study on behalf of the new crosscutting Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development, & Demonstration (SubTER) Tech Team in the Office of the Under Secretary for Science and Energy. This independent report recommends that the Energy Department take a leading role in understanding subsurface systems to better address the nation’s energy and security issues.