In North Dakota, the sale of hydrogen used to power an internal combustion engine or a fuel cell is exempt from sales tax. In addition, any equipment used by a hydrogen generation facility for the production and storage of hydrogen is exemption from sales tax. Stationary and portable hydrogen containers or pressure vessels, piping, tubing, fittings, gaskets, controls, valves, gauges, pressure regulators, safety relief devices are included as eligible equipment.
South Carolina offers a sales tax exemption for "any device, equipment, or machinery operated by hydrogen or fuel cells, any device, equipment or machinery used to generate, produce, or distribute hydrogen and designated specifically for hydrogen applications or for fuel cell applications, and any device, equipment, or machinery used predominantly for the manufacturing of, or research and development involving hydrogen or fuel cell technologies."
New Hampshire’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS), established in May 2007, requires the state’s electricity providers -- with the exception of municipal utilities -- to acquire by 2025 renewable energy certificates (RECs) equivalent to 24.8% of retail electricity sold to end-use customers. The RPS includes four distinct standards for different types of energy resources; these are classified as Class I, Class II, Class III and Class IV.
Minnesota enacted legislation in 2007 that created a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for Xcel Energy, created a separate RPS for other electric utilities,* and modified the state's existing non-mandated renewable-energy objective. In 2013, further legislation (H.F 729) was enacted to create a 1.5% solar standard for public utilities, a distributed generation carve-out, and a solar goal for the state.
Utah enacted ''The Energy Resource and Carbon Emission Reduction Initiative'' ([http://le.utah.gov/~2008/bills/sbillenr/sb0202.pdf S.B. 202]) in March 2008. While this law contains some provisions similar to those found in renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) adopted by other states, certain other provisions in S.B. 202 indicate that this law is more accurately described as a renewable portfolio ''goal'' (RPG).
In February 2008, South Dakota enacted legislation (HB 1123) establishing an objective that 10% of all retail electricity sales in the state be obtained from renewable and recycled energy by 2015. In March 2009, this policy was modified by allowing “conserved energy” to meet the objective. The objective applies to all retail providers of electricity in the state. However, as a voluntary objective (as opposed to a mandatory standard), there are no penalties or sanctions for retail providers that fail to meet the goal.
In March 2007, the North Dakota enacted legislation (H.B. 1506) establishing an ''objective'' that 10% of all retail electricity sold in the state be obtained from renewable energy and recycled energy by 2015. The objective must be measured by qualifying megawatt-hours (MWh) delivered at retail, or by credits purchased and retired to offset non-qualifying retail sales. This objective is voluntary; there is no penalty or sanction for a retail provider of electricity that fails to meet the objective.
Under Hawaii's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), each electric utility company that sells electricity for consumption in Hawaii must establish the following percentages of "renewable electrical energy" sales:
* 10% of its net electricity sales by December 31, 2010;
* 15% of its net electricity sales by December 31, 2015;
* 25% of its net electricity sales by December 31, 2020; and
* 40% of its net electricity sales by December 31, 2030.
North Carolina's Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS), established by [http://www.ncleg.net/Sessions/2007/Bills/Senate/PDF/S3v6.pdf Senate Bill 3] in August 2007, requires all investor-owned utilities in the state to supply 12.5% of 2020 retail electricity sales (in North Carolina) from eligible energy resources by 2021. Municipal utilities and electric cooperatives must meet a target of 10% renewables by 2018 and are subject to slightly different rules.