Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases.
What Is Biodiesel?
Biodiesel is a liquid fuel produced from renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is nontoxic and biodegradable. Like petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition (diesel) engines.
Biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel in any percentage, including B100 (pure biodiesel) and, the most common blend, B20 (a blend containing 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel).
B20—the most common biodiesel blend in the United States—is 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel. Using B20 avoids many of the cold-weather performance and material compatibility concerns associated with B100.
B20 can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and is compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. B20 and lower-level blends generally do not require engine modifications. Not all diesel engine manufacturers cover biodiesel use in their warranties, however. Users should consult their vehicle and engine warranty statements before using biodiesel. It is similarly important to use biodiesel that meets prescribed quality standards (ASTM D7467).
B100, or pure biodiesel, contains about 8% less energy per gallon than petroleum diesel. For B20, this could mean a 1 to 2% difference, but most B20 users report no noticeable difference in performance or fuel economy.
B100 or other high-level biodiesel blends can be used in some engines built since 1994 with biodiesel-compatible material for parts such as hoses and gaskets. As biodiesel blend levels increase significantly beyond B20, however, a number of concerns come into play. Users must be aware of the potential impact of switching to high-level biodiesel blends on engine warranties, low-temperature gelling, and the solvency/cleaning effect, if regular diesel was previously used, and microbial contamination. All these issues can be handled, but currently B100 use might be best for professional fleets with maintenance departments prepared to manage these issues.
Visit the Alternative Fuels Data Center to learn more about biodiesel.