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Static Sankey Diagram of Process Energy in U.S. Manufacturing Sector

The Process Energy Static Sankey diagram shows how energy is used directly for production by U.S. manufacturing plants. Click on the Full SectorOnsite Generation, and Nonprocess Energy thumbnails below the diagram to see further detail on energy flows in manufacturing. Also, see the Dynamic Manufacturing Energy Sankey Tool to pan, zoom, and customize the manufacturing Sankey data and compare energy consumption across manufacturing subsectors.

The Process Energy diagram below shows inputs of steam, electricity, and fuel to “process” end uses in the U.S. manufacturing sector (NAICS 31-33). Process applications (such as process heating, process cooling & refrigeration, machine drive, electro-chemical, and other processes) use this energy to convert raw materials into manufactured products.  Energy is lost during the transformation of steam, electricity, and fuel into useful work (e.g., compressing, pumping) and heat (e.g., melting, heat treating). Applied Energy is the energy consumed in these process applications that translates directly into useful work and heat. It is determined by subtracting the end use losses from the total energy consumed for each process application.

These diagrams visually complement the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint analysis. Definitions of terms used in this Sankey diagram are at the bottom of this page.

 

Image of the Sankey diagram for process energy in the manufacturing sector

Data source: 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint

thumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for onsite generation in the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for process energy in the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for nonprocess energy in the manufacturing sector

Terminology

Process Energy: Energy directly applied in converting raw material into manufactured product. MECS-specified categories of process energy include process heating, process cooling and refrigeration, machine drive, electrochemical processes, and other process uses.

Applied Energy: Amount of total primary energy employed in direct end use.

Process End Use Losses: Energy that is lost during the transformation of steam, electricity and fuel into useful work and heat for process applications.

Other Process: Remaining direct process uses not falling under a MECS-specified process end use category (e.g. computer-controlled equipment, process tools, steam stripping).

Notes

  1. The data source for this Sankey Diagram is the 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint. The footprint analysis utilizes 2010 EIA Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data, with adjustments, to quantify steam generation, electricity generation, and incoming fuel; onsite steam and electricity generation; and end use of electricity and fuel. Steam end use is not provided by MECS but rather is dependent on analysis alone. 
  2. Energy values represent aggregate sector-wide data in TBtu/yr, rounded to nearest whole number
  3. Excludes feedstock energy (byproduct fuels from feedstock are included)
  4. Arrow and box heights are proportional to flow size except for small flows for visual convenience
  5. Energy loss does not equate to recoverable energy, as a portion of these losses are thermodynamically unrecoverable
  6. Offsite generation shown on net basis (purchases, sales, and transfers accounted for)
  7. Offsite and onsite generation, offsite transmission and onsite steam distribution losses are not included in the Process Sankey