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Static Sankey Diagram of Onsite Generation in U.S. Manufacturing Sector

The Onsite Generation Static Sankey diagram shows how steam and electricity are generated by U.S. manufacturing plants. Click on the Full SectorProcess Energy, and Nonprocess Energy thumbnails below the diagram to see further detail on energy flows in manufacturing. Also, see the Dynamic Manufacturing Energy Sankey Tool to pan, zoom, and customize the manufacturing Sankey data and compare energy consumption across manufacturing subsectors.

The Onsite Generation diagram below shows offsite inputs of fuel and electricity that flow to conventional boilers, CHP, and other steam- and/or electricity-generating systems. Generating steam and electricity onsite for use in plant operations results in some energy losses, which are estimated. Electricity generated from CHP systems, power systems (e.g., diesel generators), and onsite renewable energy from non-biomass sources is combined in the electricity output. Over 3,617 TBtu of steam and 438 TBtu of electricity were directly employed in end use manufacturing applications in 2010.

These diagrams visually complement the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint analysis. Definitions of terms used in this Sankey diagram are at the bottom of this page.

Image of the Sankey diagram for onsite generation in the manufacturing sector

Data source: 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint

thumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for onsite generation in the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for process energy in the manufacturing sectorthumbnail image of the Sankey diagram for nonprocess energy in the manufacturing sector


Onsite Generation: Energy indirectly applied in generating steam and electricity through means of CHP, boilers and other electricity generating equipment. Onsite renewable electricity generation is a contributing output.

Onsite Renewable Electricity Generation: Electricity generated onsite from renewable sources other than biomass (e.g., solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal).

Onsite Generation Losses: Energy that is lost during the transformation of fuel into steam and electricity within the plant boundary.


CHP: Combined Heat and Power


  1. The data source for this Sankey Diagram is the 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint. The footprint analysis utilizes 2010 EIA Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) data, with adjustments, to quantify steam generation, electricity generation, and incoming fuel; onsite steam and electricity generation; and end use of electricity and fuel. Steam end use is not provided by MECS but rather is dependent on analysis alone.  
  2. Energy values represent aggregate sector-wide data in TBtu/yr, rounded to nearest whole number
  3. Excludes feedstock energy (byproduct fuels from feedstock are included)
  4. Arrow and box heights are proportional to flow size except for small flows for visual convenience
  5. Energy loss does not equate to recoverable energy, as a portion of these losses are thermodynamically unrecoverable
  6. Offsite generation shown on net basis (purchases, sales, and transfers accounted for)
  7. Offsite generation and transmission losses are not included in the Onsite Generation Sankey